ANCIENT ROME, I: Republic
TEXTS -- Chris Scarre, The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome (Penguin, 1995); Livy, The Rise of Rome: Books 1-5, trans. T. J. Luce (Oxford UP, 1998); Plutarch, Roman Lives: A Selection of Eight Lives, trans. Robin Waterfield (Oxford UP, 1999); Virgil, Aeneid, trans. Robert Fagles (Penguin Classics, 2008); and William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White, Elements of Style (Allyn & Bacon, 4e, 1999).
CORE -- Visit this page for the second part of our syllabus (Connecting Ancient Rome) and to get started with the crucial attitudes and perspectives for our course.
OTHER RESOURCES (some used throughout our studies) -- Ancient Rome: A New History (David Potter, 2e); The Romans (Anthony Kamm); Rome History Courses, with Some High- and Lowlights of Roman History, Basic Rome City Topography, and Unit 1: Approaching Rome (Tom Wukitsch); Roman Art (MMOA); Internet Ancient History Sourcebook (Halsall); Introduction to Ancient Rome (Timothy Moore, UT-Austin): a nicely outlined and illustrated course; Introducing the Classical World (The Open University); Timeline: Ancient Rome; History of Ancient Rome course (Notre Dame); Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome companion Website (Routledge); and Roman Architecture (Kleiner, Yale U.).
MONARCHY and EARLY REPUBLIC (751-390 BC)
LATER REPUBLIC (390-31 BC)
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MONARCHY AND EARLY REPUBLIC (751-390 BC), I: Livy 1.1-8
ROME -- The Formation of the Roman Identity (800-350 BC): Summary, Timeline, and Maps (Potter); The Romans: Origins (Founding Legends and Site of Rome) and Religion (Kamm); Growth of the Roman Republic (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animation); Museo della Civiltá Romana: model of the archaic Rome (Koskimies); Roman Art: A Resource for Educators (MMOA): beginning on page 20 for this valuable eight-page summary of our course; and The Empire Timeline (Know the Romans). Optional: The Western Tradition, 9: The Rise of Rome; Approaching Rome (Wukitsch); Early Roman Civilization, 753-509 BC (The History Guide); The Roman Republic and The Gods of Early Rome (Smitha); Wukitsch's biography; Geography of Rome (Pearson: Map Master); Ancient Rome (History Wiz); Odyssey Online (Emory U.); The Founding of Rome and The Roman Kings (Illustrated History of the Roman Empire); Archaic Roman round hut (Museo della Civilta Romana); and maps of Italy (The Open University).
LIVY 1.2 -- Livy (Livius) and Tomb of Aeneas at Lavinium (Perseus Project).
LIVY 1.4 -- Capitoline She-Wolf (c. 500 BC) and Peter Paul Rubens, Romulus and Remus (c. 1615-16, Musei Capitolini, Rome). Optional: Etruscan and Ancient Rome (NY Institute of Technology); Etruscan Art (MMOA); Etruscan Art (Rozmeri Basic); Etruscan Art (9th-1st Centuries BC) (Louvre); She-Wolf (Encyclopedia Roma); Romulus: The Foundation of Rome (Greek Mythology Link, with irritating pop-up ads); and Rex Stem, "The Exemplary Lessons of Livy's Romulus," Transactions of the American Philological Association, 137/2 (2007).
II: Livy 1.9-60
LIVY 1.9-13 -- Rape of the Sabine Women: a Republican coin (89 BC, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome); a fragment from the Basilica Aemilia (15 BC); Sabine Women (Encyclopedia Roma); and Wikipedia for Nicholas Poussin, Rape of the Sabine Women (1637-38, Louvre, Paris) and Jacques-Louis David, The Intervention of the Sabine Women (1799, Louvre, Paris). Optional: Sobbin' Women [3 minutes] from Seven Brides for Seven Brothers (1954).
LIVY 1.11 -- Tarpeia: a Republican denarius with Sabine shields crushing the Vestal Virgin Tarpeia, who betrayed Rome (89 BC). Optional: Identifying details of the coin; Tarpiea's treachery on the Basilica Aemeilia (15C BC); and Tarpeian Rock (Wikipedia).
LIVY 1.25-25 -- Jacques-Louis David, The Oath of the Horatii (1784, Louvre, Paris). Optional: David's Oath of the Horatii (Smarthistory) [6 minutes].
LIVY 1.57-60 -- Botticelli, The Story of Lucretia (1496-1504, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston), scrolling half-way down the page; and two versions of Titian's Tarquin and Lucretia: Cambridge (1571, Fitzwilliam Museum) and Bordeaux (1570s, Musée des Beaux-Arts).
LIVY 1.56 -- Cloaca Maxima (VROMA), the great sewer of Rome.
LIVY 1.59 -- Lucius Junius Brutus (Livius); The Capitoline Brutus (1C BC, Capitoline Museum, Rome); Lapis Niger (later 6C-early 7C BC), Lapis Niger and Vulcanal (Seindal), and Lapis Niger (Wikipedia). Optional: The Capitoline Brutus (Seindal and Wikipedia).
OPTIONAL: Livy 1.46-48 and 59-10: Tullia Minor (The Worlds of Roman Women); and 1.18-21: Numa Pompilius (c. 97 BC, Pergamon Museum, Berlin): a Republican denarius issued by L. Pomponius Molo: "The obverse shows the head of Apollo wearing a laurel wreath with the name of the moneyer. The reverse depicts the early Roman king Numa Pompilius holding the augur's staff (lituus) and standing before an altar at which he is about to sacrifice a goat held by a youth. The Pomponian gens were supposedly descended from a son of Numa" (VROMA); and Republican Rome, 509-31BC (The History Place).
III: Livy 2-3
LIVY 2.5: Brutus executes his sons for treason (509 BC) -- Jacques-Louis David, The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons (1789, Louvre). Optional: David's compositional study (MMOA, NY) and Republican Rome, 509-31BC (The History Guide).
LIVY 2.10 -- Horatius Cocles at the Tiber Bridge (508 BC), with a model of archaic Rome (Livius).
LIVY 2.19-21 -- Battle of Lake Regillus (499 BC) (Wikipedia) and Temple of Castor and Pollux (Seindal).
LIVY 3.19-29: The Rise of the Roman Empire (500-140 BC) (TimeMaps); Ancient Italy about 500 BC (Pearson: Audio Guided Tour); Ancient Italy about 500 BC (Prentice-Hall); and Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Rome (Smarthistory).
Dictatorship of Cincinnatus (458 BC) -- Article with picture of the Cincinnatus statue in Cincinnati, OH (Wikipedia); Houdon's statue of George Washington as Cincinnatus (1785-88, Virginia State Capital Building, Richmond, VA); and Rediscovering an American Icon: Houdon's Washington.
LIVY 3.44-55: Verginia -- Botticelli, The Story of Virginia (1496-1504, Accademic Carrara, Bergamo, Italy), a companion piece to his Lucretia. Optional: Republican Rome, 509-31 BC (The History Place); and Republican Rome (Wukitsch).
IV: Livy 4-5
HISTORY -- The Formation of the Roman Identity (800-350 BC): Summary, Timeline, and The Roman conquest of Italy (map in the next chapter) (Potter); The Romans: Origins (Etruscan Influence and The Kings) and Republic (Officials through Italy) (Kamm); Roman Italy in the Republic (Mapping History): Introduction, Roman Expansion in Italy: 509-31 BC, Census Figures: Roman Citizens, and Summary; and Visit the Roman and United States Senates (Pearson: History Interactive). Optional: The Early Roman Republic (Illustrated History of the Roman Empire); and City of Rome: Republican and Expansion of the Roman Republic (McGraw-Hill).
LIVY 4.17-20: Cornelius Cossus and Spolia Opima (437 BC): a Republican denarius (VROMA) recalls M. Claudius Marcellus donating the spolia opima (spoils) taken from a killed Gaulish king to the Capitoline Temple of Jupiter Feretrius in 222 BC (50 BC, Pergamon Museum, Berlin); the Romans honored Marcellus as the third warrior to warrant the spolia opima after Romulus and Cornelius Cossus. Optional: Dylan Sailor, "Dirty Linen, Fabrication, and the Authorities of Livy and Augustus," Transactions of the American Philological Association, 136/2 (2006): Livy 4.20.5-11.
LIVY 5.19-23: Capture of Veii (396 BC) -- Apollo of "Veii" (c. 550-520 BC) (Theoi) and Apollo (Veii) (Virtual Sculpture Gallery of Selected Roman Sculpture); Wounded Chimaera (early 4C BC, Museo Archeologico, Florence) and here; Mars of Todi (early 4C BC, Vatican Museum) and five other views; and Gorgon head (Virtual Sculpture Gallery of Selected Roman Sculpture).
LIVY 5.47: The Sacred Geese (c. 46 BC, British Museum, London) -- a denarius with Juno Moneta (larger version): "In 390 BC, the sacred geese of Juno warned (monere) the Romans about an impending attack by Gauls, hence her temple on the Capitoline was dedicated to Juno Moneta. The mint for making coins was adjacent to this temple and the goddess thus became associated with money" (VROMA); The Dying Gaul (Capitoline Museum, Rome) and Ludovisi Gaul (Palazzo Altemps, Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome), both Roman marble copies of Hellenistic bronze originals from Pergamon (c. 220 BC). Optional: Andrew Feldherr, Spectacle and society in Livy's history (1998, book).
LATER REPUBLIC (390-31 BC), I: Cato the Elder and Aemilius Paullus
HISTORY -- War and Empire (350-133 BC): Chapter Summary, Timeline, and Maps ("The Second Punic War" and "The expansion of Roman power in the second century BC") (Potter); The Romans: Republic (Officials through Punic Wars) (Kamm); Republican Rome, 509-31 BC (The History Place); Cato the Elder (Wikipedia): images and maps; The Fall of the Roman Republic (BBC); Gravitis: a Republican portrait (1C BC, MMOA, NY) here and at RNG (scroll down one third of the page here for the "strong portrait head of an elderly man"), and the Barberini Portrait of a patrician holding busts of his ancestors (Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome); Pons Aemilius (142 BC, Rome): the surviving chunk of the oldest bridge across the Tiber in Rome; Battle of Pydna (167 BC) for AP's victory marked by a monument at Delphi (Livius); Perseus of Macedon (Malanas) and a coin portrait of AP; Battle of Cynoscephalae (197) (Livius); and Forum Romanum (VROMA): tour. Optional: The Roman Republic (509-27 BC) (MMOA); Roman Forum (Encyclopedia Romana); Forum Romanum--Republican Forum; Via Appia (Koskimies); and 197 BC Battle of Cynoscephalae (Decisive Battles of the Ancient World) [22 minutes].
MAPS -- Roman Expansion to 120 CE (Norton iMaps). Optional: Italy 265 BC (McGraw-Hill: Palmer); The Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean (Historic Atlas of the Mediterranean); Ancient Italy and Roman Expansion in Italy, 500-265 BCE (Wadsworth); Ancient Greek and Roman Empires (Macmillan); Growth of the Roman Republic (McGraw-Hill); and The Civilization Of Ancient Rome (Roman Expansion in Italy, 298-218 BCE and The Expansion of Rome, 264-44 BCE) (Norton iMaps).
PLUTARCH -- Plutarch: Parallel Lives [22 minutes] (Words of Change).
PUNIC WARS -- The Romans: Punic War (Kamm) and Punic Wars, 263-146 BC (McDougal Littell). Optional: Carthage (History Channel: Engineering an Empire) [44 minutes]; 216 BC Battle of Cannae (Decisive Battles of the Ancient World) [22 minutes]; Hannibal (Harcourt Multimedia Biographies); Richared Miles, "Carthage: The Lost Mediterranean Civilisation," History Today, 60/2 (2010); Richard A. Gabriel, "Hannibal's Big Mistake," Military History, 28/4 (2011); The Punic War (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animation); The Punic Wars (McGraw-Hill); The Mediterranean in 264 BC: Rome and Carthage before the First Punic War; The Mediterranean in 218 BC: Rome and Carthage before the Second Punic War, and The Mediterranean in 129 BC (Roman expansion into Africa and Asia (Mladjov); Hannibal: The Fall of Carthage [49 minutes]; and Carthage's Destruction (BBC: In Our Time) [45-minute audio].
II: The Gracchi
The Gracchi -- The Failure of the Roman Republic (133-59 BC): Chapter Summary, Timeline, and Maps ("The Agrarian Laws of the second century BC") (Potter); The Romans: Republic (Gracchi) (Kamm); The Roman Forum (Encyclopedia Roma); Angelica Kaufmann, Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi, Pointing to her Children as Her Treasures (c. 1785, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond); Land laws of the Gracchi overturned (111 BC); and Coin (scroll halfway down for details); and History of Ancient Rome (TimeMaps). Optional: The Late Roman Republic (Illustrated History of the Roman Empire); Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire, 4: Revolution (BBC, 2006) [60 minutes] and Eurasian Trade, ca. 500 BCE-100 CE (Pearson: Global Snapshot).
III: Marius and Sulla
HISTORY -- The Failure of the Roman Republic (133-59 BC): Chapter Summary, Timeline, and Maps ("Rebellion against Rome, 91 BC Agrarian Laws of the second century BC") (Potter); The Romans: Republic (Marius and Sulla) (Kamm); Military census on relief of Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus (late 2C or early 1C BC, Louvre, Paris) and optional second view; Expansion Roman Republic (McGraw-Hill: Palmer); Growth of Roman Power to 44 BC (Pearson: Audio Guided Tour); and Pressure Groups in Ancient Rome , II–I BC (J. P. Adams). Optional: Republican Disintegration (Wukitsch).
MARIUS -- Earliest legionary eagle - a coin of C Valerius Flaccus (BBC). Optional: The First Barbarian War [45 minutes] (History Channel: Rome -- Rise and Fall of an Empire).
SULLA -- Temple of Fortuna Primigenia, Pratesneste (late 2C BC): computer model of Sulla's temple; Social War coins (c. 90-87, British Museum, London): the Italian bull tramples the Roman wolf, with optional other coins at the bottom of this page; Sulla coins (RNG); and Jugurtha (Livius). Optional: Mithridates (Livius); and Adrienne Mayor, "Mithradates: Scourge of Rome," History Today, 59/12 (2009).
SPARTACUS -- Spartacus (Livius). Optional: Spartacus [45 minutes] (History Channel: Rome -- Rise and Fall of an Empire); Spartacus: Behind The Myth [52 minutes]; and Spartacus [55 minutes] (BBC: Heroes and Villains).
IV: Pompey the Great
POMPEY THE GREAT -- The Failure of the Roman Republic (133-59 BC): Chapter Summary, Timeline, and Maps ("The empire in 60 BC" and "Pompey's eastern conquests") and From Republic to Principate (59 BC-AD 70): Chapter Summary, Timeline, and Maps ("The Gallic Wars" and "The Civil Wars") (Potter); The Civil Wars of the Late Roman Republic (Pearson: Animated Map); Pompey the Great (Ny Carlberg Museum, Copenhagen); and Imperatorial Coins of the late Republic: Pompeius Magnus (RNG). Optional: Disintegration of the Republic (Wukitsch); Growth of Roman Power to 44 BC (Prentice-Hall); The Mediterranean in 59 BC: before the First Triumvirate (Mladjov); Growth of Roman Power to 44 BC (Pearson: Map Master); Roman Dominions of the Late Republic (Pearson: Animated Map); Spartacus: Slave Rebellion (73-71 BC) (Wikipedia); Spartacus: Historical Background (VROMA), Spartacus (1960) movie trailer [3 minutes], and Pepsi advertisement (Spartacus version); TV show on the historical Spartacus [50 minutes]; 71 BC Third Servile War and 48 BC Battle of Pharsalus (Decisive Battles of the Ancient World) [22 minutes each]; Theater of Pompey (c. 55 BC, Rome) (c. 55 BC, Rome); and Imagines Operum Pompei (Theatrum Pompei Project).
CRASSUS -- Harran (Carrhae) (Livius). Optional: 53 BC Battle of Carrhae (Decisive Battles of the Ancient World) [22 minutes].
V: Julius Caesar
JULIUS CAESAR -- The Romans: Caesars (Julius) (Kamm); The Demise of the Roman Republic (50 BC-30 BC) (Prentice Hall); Engineering an Empire: Rome (History Channel), Part 1 [9 minutes]; Gaius Julius Caesar, Rubico (49 BC), The Battle of Pharsalus (48 BC), and The Ides of March (44 BC) (Livius); Ides of March (Encyclopedia Roma); The Civil Wars of the Late Roman Republic (Pearson); Imperatorial Coins of the late Republic : Caius Julius Caesar (RNG); and Crimewatch BC (Julius Caesar's death) (BBC: Horrible Histories). Optional: The Mediterranean in 44 BC: at the death of Caesar (Mladjov); Gaul in Time of Caesar (McGraw-Hill: Palmer); Roman Dominions in the Late Republic, 31 BCE (Wadsworth); The Rise of the Roman Empire (TimeMaps); Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire, 1: Caesar (BBC, 2006) [60 minutes]; Imperatorial Coins of the late Republic: Caesars Murderers & Sextus Pompeius (RNG); Roman Silver Denarius with Head of Captive Gaul (48 BC, British Museum); Vercingetorix Memorial at Alesia (Alise-Sainte-Reine, France: full and close; The Julian Calendar (Encyclopedia Roma); John Haywood, "Vercingetorix and the Failure of Gallic Resistance," History Today, 59/9 (2009); Lionel Royer, Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at the Feet of Caesar (1899, Crozatier Museum, Puy-en-Velay); Roman Portrait Sculpture: The Julio Claudian Family (Caesar to Augustus), Caesar, Caesar's Murderers, and Caesar's Party after his Death (RNG); marble portraits of Julius Caesar (Seindal and British Museum); and Vincenzo Camuccini, Death of Caesar (1798).
Engineering an Empire: Rome, segments 1-4 [15 minutes] (History Channel)
Julius Caesar [45 minutes] (History Channel: Rome -- Rise and Fall of an Empire);
REPUBLICAN LIFE (optional): Rome: The Ancient Forum (Rick Steves) [iTunes U, 4 minutes]; The Agora of Athens vs. the Roman Forum and The Roman Forum, Architecture and Urbanism (My Architectural Moleskin); Romanum (Koskimies); Travel along a Roman Road (Pearson: History Interactive).
ANTONY -- Mark Antony and the Legionary Denarius (Encyclopedia Roma) and Imperatorial Coins of the late Republic: Caesar's Party After his Death and The Third Civil War: Octavianus against Marcus Antonius (RNG). Optional: Augustus Principate and Julio Claudians (27 BC-68 AD) (Wukitsch); The Death of Cicero (Encyclopedia Roma); and Cubiculum (bedroom) from the Villa of P. Fannius Synistor (c. 50-40 BC, MMOA, NYC).
BRUTUS -- Marcus Junius Brutus Caepio (Livius); and Bust of Marcus Junius Brutus (c. 30-15 BC, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome). Optional: William Blake, Lucifer (1824-27, National Gallery of Victoria, Australia) and Bernard Buffet, L'Enfer de Dante: Lucifer (1976, Museu de Arte Contemporânea, Frankfurt am Main).
PHILIPPI (42 BC) -- Battle of Philippi (Livius) and Battle of Philippi (HBO: Rome) [9.30 minutes].
CLEOPATRA -- Cleopatra VII (Lahanas) and Cleopatra of Egypt: From History to Myth (British Museum). Optional: Cleopatra (Encyclopedia Roma); Susan Walker, "Cleopatra: From History to Myth," History Today, 51/4 (2001); and Cleopatra (BBC: In Our Time) [45-minute audio].
ACTIUM (31 BC) -- Naval Battle of Actium (Livius) and 31 BC The Battle of Actium (History Channel) [24 minutes]. Optional: Anthony and Cleopatra: The Battle of Actium (1963) and Cleopatra: The Battle of Actium (1934).
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