MODERN WESTERN WORLD, II: Revolutions
THEME: The foundation of modern nation-states in 'murica, Germany, and Italy (mid-19C).
NATIONALISM -- The Western Tradition, 44: The Age of the Nation States. Optional: European Language Groups, c. 1850 and Europe, 1871 (McGraw-Hill); The Peoples of Europe, ca. 1850 (OUP); and Victorian art and architecture (Khan Academy).
'MURICA -- The Civil War, 1861-1865 (Brinkley). Optional: The Election of 1860 & the Road to Disunion, The Civil War, Part I, The Civil War, Part II, and Battles of the Civil War (Crash Course US History); and the American Civil War section of 'murican History (WebBooks). And study at least one work:
Horatio Greenough, Washington as Zeus (1840) -- OGCMA. Optional: Smithsonian Legacies; Art History Abbreviated [3 minutes]; Worst Statue of George Washington Ever (When Art History Goes BAD); The Colossal Zeus Statue of Pheidias (Lahanas); and Man is the Measure of All Things (Farber).
Washington Crossing the Delaware (1851) -- Smarthistory and MMOA interactive. Optional: Picturing America; What's wrong with this painting? (Washington Crossing Historic Park); EDSITEment; and Teen Screens: "Kremlin America" (MMOA) [3.30 minutes].
Constantino Brumidi, The Apotheosis of Washington (1865) -- Explore Capital Hill (Architect of the Capital). Optional: The Apotheosis of Washington: Brumidi's Fresco & Beyond (UVA); Frieze of American History (1978-1953) and Brumidi Corridors (Architect of the Capital: Explore Capital Hill); and U.S. Capital (Essential Architecture).
The Lincoln Memorial (1922) -- Essential Architecture.
ITALY -- Unification of Italy and Germany (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations) and Unification of Italy (Wadsworth Modules). Optional: Unification of Italy (Pearson Active Maps); Unification of Italy (McGraw-Hill); Italian Unification and German Unification, 1815-1871 (Norton iMaps); The Unification of Italy (Pearson); Unifying Italy (Pearson: Audio Guided Tour); Italian Unification (Amit Mendelsohn); and Italian satirical map of Europe, 1870 (imgur). And study at least one work:
Music: Giuseppe Verdi, Nabucco: Va, pensiero (Fly, Thought, 1842) -- Verdi's "theme music" for Italian unification, skipping the video (NPR) and performance [5.30 minutes]; and The Top 10 Politically-Charged Moments in Verdi's Operas (WQXR: Operavore). Optional: Va, pensiero (Wikipedia).
Monuments -- The Vittoriano: Monument of Vittorio Emanuele II (Essential Architecture).
GERMANY -- Unification of Germany (Wadsworth Modules) and Nation Building, 1848-1870: Italy, Germany and Comparative Examples: study "Setting: Art and Unification" and "Comparisons: U.S. Civil War" (Wadsworth: History Unbound). Optional: Forging an Empire: Bismarckian Germany (1866-1890) (German History in Documents and Images); The Road to National Unification (Scheck); The German Question, 1815-1871 and Unification of Germany (McGraw-Hill); The Unification of Germany (Wadsworth); Imperial Germany, 1871 (Bereznay); and Unification of Germany, 1865-1871 (Pearson: Audio Guided Tour). And study at least one work:
Siegessaeule Victory Column Goldelse (1864, Berlin).
Troops Parade Down the Champs Élysée in Paris (01 March 1871).
Troops Parade through the Brandenburg Gate (16 June 1871).
Neuschwanstein (1880) -- Essential Architecture.
The Reichstag (1884, Berlin) -- Essential Architecture.
IMPERIALISM -- 19C Imperialism (Crash Course World History and transcript); The British Empire, Trading Routes and Construction and The Middle East at the Beginning of the 20th Century (The Map as History); European Imperialism 1880-1900: Theory, Practice, Discourse (Wadsworth: History Unbound); and Share of World Manufacturing Output 1900 (OUP). Optional: Empire: Politics, Conquest, and Dissolution (1500-2000) (Wadsworth: World History Unbound); Beginning of World War I: Empires before World War I and German and Italian Empires in 1914 (Khan Academy); Imperialism (Modern World History: Interactive Textbook); and An Age of Modernity, Anxiety, and Imperialism, 1891-1914 timeline (Wadsworth).
Maps -- Imperialism, 1885-1975: "Africa: 1885-1914: The Scramble" (Wadsworth Modules) and Imperial Expansion in Africa to 1880 and Partition of Africa, 1880-1914 (Pearson Active Maps). Optional: Colonial Claims, 1900 (McDougal Littell: Chapter Maps); Nations and Empires, 1850-1914, Imperialism and Colonialism, 1870-1914, Fin de Siècle Europe, An Unsettled World, 1890-1914, Partition of Africa, 1880-1914 (Norton iMaps); Imperial Expansion in Africa to 1880 and Partition of Africa, 1880-1914 (Pearson); and The British Empire Maproom (Luascombe).
IV: Realism and Impressionism
THEME: Emerging artistic movements challenge political capitalism (19C).
ART -- Becoming Modern (Smarthistory) and The Art of the Western World, 7: A Fresh View -- Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, Part I [until minute 28.23]. Optional: The Rise of Modernism: Art of the Later 19th Century (Online And study Guide for Gardner's Art through the Ages: The Western Perspective).
And study the main topics below (Photography, Realism, and Impressionism), the art work(s) in red, and at least three other art works by at least two different artists:
PHOTOGRAPHY -- Early Photography (Smarthistory). Optional: other photographers in Smarthistory and Photo Seed: early 19-20C photography.
REALISM --Optional: Realism (Khan Academy) and Realism in France 19th Century, Part 1: Daumier and Courbet (Mencher) [28 minutes].
Rosa Bonheur (French) -- WGA.
Honoré Daumier (French) -- WGA and Artble. Optional: Honoré Daumier (1808-1879): Satirist of French and Prussian Militarism (David Hart).
Édouard Manet (French) -- WGA; Artble; and WebMuseum. Optional: Realism in France in the 19th Century, Part 2: Manet (Mencher) [17.30 minutes]; Manet and Modernité and Manet and the Impressionists (Art History Unstuffed).
Olympia (1863) -- WGA; Smarthistory; and Musée d'Orsay. Optional: Olympia (1863), Part 1 and Titian’s Venus (c.1548-9) and Manet’s Olympia (1863) (Abrahams); and Manet and the Nude (Art History Unstuffed).
In the Conservatory (1878-79) -- Smarthistory.
IMPRESSIONISM -- The Art Story; Impressionism: Color in Art (Artyfactory) and How the Impressionists Got Their Name (Smarthistory). Optional: Impressionism (Khan Academy); The First Impressionist Exhibition, 1874 (Artchive); WebMuseum; EyconArt; The Impressionists with Tim Marlow [60 minutes]; Impressionism: A Circle of Friends (WetCanvas); Waldemar Januszczak: The Impressionists (BBC: Your Paintings) [6 minutes]; and The Impressionists (BBC: Richard Armitage).
Gustave Caillebotte (French) -- WGA.
Claude Monet (French) -- WGA; Art History Abbreviated [4 minutes]; Art History in a Hurry [3 minutes]; Impressionism: Monet (Mencher) [26 minutes]; WebMuseum; MMOA; Monet 2010 Exhibition: User Journey (84paris); Living Color: Claude Monet and Monet's Finish: Claude Monet: Late Work (Haber); Color: Warm & Cool and Linear & Aerial Perspective (The Minneapolis Museum of Art); The Impressionists: Monet (The Great Artists) [45 minutes]; and Monet's Houses of Parliament, London (Gio's Paint Brush) [6.30 minutes].
Water Lilies (1918-26) -- Smarthistory.
Berthe Morisot (French) -- WGA.
THEME: Art and conquest in the age of European imperialism before World War I (1914).
POST-IMPRESSIONISM -- The Art Story; Post Impressionism: The Roots of Modern Art (Artyfactory); and The Art of the Western World, 7: A Fresh View -- Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, Part II [minutes 28.23-55.10]. Optional: Post-Impressionism and Sculpture (Khan Academy). And study at least four art works by at least three different artists:
Paul Cézanne (French) -- WGA. Optional: Artble; WGA; Paul Cézanne: The Château at Médan (1880) (Artyfactory); Art History in a Hurry [3.30 minutes]; and 19th C Post Impressionism Cezanne (Mencher) [11 minutes].
The Red Rock (c. 1895) -- Smarthistory.
Mont Sainte-Victoire (1902-04) -- Smarthistory.
The Large Bathers (1906) -- Artble and Smarthistory. Optional: The Bather (1885-86) and Bathers (London, c. 1894-1905) (Smarthistory); and Sister Wendy's Grand Tour, 8: Paris: Cezanne, The Bathers (1994) [through minute 3.22].
WebMuseum. Optional: Paul Gauguin (Mencher) [17 minutes]; Tate Gallery [14 minutes]; Gauguin: Maker of Myth (Graham-Dixon); Paul Gauguin (Art History Unstuffed); and Private Life of a Masterpiece: Gauguin (BBC) [49 minutes].(French)
The Thinker (1880-1919) -- Rodin Museum Philadelphia.
The Burghers of Calais (1884-95) -- WGA; Smarthistory; and MMOA. Optional: Auguste Rodin: The Burghers of Calais -- A Resource for Educators (MMOA).
19th C Post Impressionism Seurat (Mencher) [11.30 minutes].(French) Optional:
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (French) -- WGA.
Vincent van Gogh (Dutch) -- WGA and Artble. Optional: Vincent van Gogh (Mencher) [26.30 minutes]; Van Gogh (BBC: The Power Of Art) [60 minutes]; and Sister Wendy's Grand Tour, 4: Amsterdam: Van Gogh (1994) [minute 6.43-9.20].
Self-Portraits -- Vincent van Gogh: A History in Self Portraits (Artyfactory); Vincent van Gogh: Self-Portraits (WebMuseum); Who am I? Self-Portraits in Art and Writing (NGA); and Van Gogh, Self-Portrait Dedicated to Paul Gauguin (Smarthistory and WGA). Optional: Self-Portraits in Chronological Order (WGA); Self-Portraits (Vincent van Gogh Gallery); The Self-Portraits (Vincent); Van Gogh's Letters (WebExhibit); Doctor My Eyes: Cézanne to van Gogh: The Collection of Dr. Gachet and The Passion Without the Color: Vincent van Gogh: The Drawings (Haber); and Margaret Drabble on Vincent van Gogh: 'It is a hard road ahead and he knows it' (The Guardian).
Starry Night (1888) -- Musée d'Orsay.
Starry Night (1889) -- MMOA; Artble; and Artyfactory. Optional: A Brief Understanding of Three Starry Nights (The Vincent van Gogh Gallery); Van Gogh's Starry Night recreated in dominoes - video (Guardian) [2 minutes]; WGA; Google Art; and Vincent.
Wheat Field with Crows (1889) -- WGA and Wheat Field with Crows (Simon Schama's Power of Art). Optional: Vincent van Gogh: The Paintings: Wheat Field (a.k.a., Wheat Field with Crows) and Robert Colescott, Auvers-sur-Oise (Crow in the Wheat Field) (1981).
ARCHITECTURE -- Optional: 19th C Technology and Architecture [15 minutes] and Paris during the 19th Century Baron Haussmann, Charles Garnier and Gustave Caillebotte [20 minutes] (Mencher). Study at least one building:
Opera House (1875, Paris) -- AD Classics (ArchDaily).
Statue of Liberty (1884, NYC) -- Essential Architecture.
Wainwright Building (1891, St. Louis, MO) -- AD Classics (ArchDaily).
Biltmore Estates (1895, Asheville, NC) -- Essential Architecture.
MUSIC: Impressionist -- Study at least one musical piece:
Gymnopédies (1888) -- information (Wikipedia) and Blood, Sweat and Tears, Variations on a Theme By Erik Satie (1st and 2nd Movements) (1968) [1 minute], from the full Gymnopédies [9 minutes].
Claude Debussy (French) -- Debussy's Paris: Art, Music, & Sounds of the City (Smith College Museum of Art).
Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune (1894) -- information (Wikipedia) and performance [13 minutes] (Leopold Stokowski and the London Symphony Orchestra). Optional: Listening Guide: Debussy's Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune (Philharmonia Orchestra).
MODERNISM, I: Tolstoy
THEME: Russian artists challenge Western European Isms (19C).
TOLSTOY -- Images of Tolstoy (The Voice of Russia's Global Discussion); The Big Read Promo [6 minutes]; The Western Tradition, 45: A New Public; Leo Tolstoy (Books and Writers); and Images of Tolstoy. Optional: The Last Station (2009): review (Roger Ebert); Tolstoy (BBC: In Our Time) [45-minute audio]; Tolstoy's estate at Yasnaya Polyana (Wikipedia); Leo Tolstoy at Yasnaya Polyana [2 minutes].
lILA REPIN -- The Peredvizhniki (The Wanderers). Optional: Russian Painting during the Age of Romanticism and Nineteenth-Century Russian Art: "Ideological Realism" (Dartmouth College); and Realism (Early Twenty-Century Russian Drama).
Leo Tolstoy (1887) -- Wikipedia.
Leo Tolstoy Barefoot (1901) -- National Museum (Sweden).
DOSTOEVSKY -- The Western Tradition, 46: Fin de Siècle; Dostoevsky (Books and Writers); Vasily Perov, Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1872); Fyodor Dostoyevsky - Peter Ustinov (Peter Ustinov's Russia, 1986) [7 minutes]; and Monty Python: The Spanish Inquisition [9 minutes]. Optional: The Brothers Karamazov and The Dark Knight / The Grand Inquisitor (Thug Notes); Mass Society in an "Age of Progress," 1874-1891 timeline; The Soviet film of The Brothers Karamazov (1969) curiously substitutes another story for Dostoevsky's original "The Grand Inquisitor" scene [8 minutes]; The Grand Inquisitor: a clever short story drawing loosely on Dostoevsky's parable [22 minutes]; Crime and Punishment - Book Summary & Analysis and Notes from Underground (Dostoyevsky) - Book Summary & Analysis (Thug Notes); and The Existentialist Frame of Mind (The History Guide).
MUSIC: Modest Mussorgsky -- Ilya Repin, Modest Mussorgsky (1881). Study at least one of the musical works:
Pictures at an Exhibition (1874), orchestrated by Maurice Ravel (1922) -- information (Good Music Guide) and performance: "Promenade" (Alan Gampel, 2011) [to minute 1.30 of the 20-minute session for the opening movement]. Optional: full performances: London Philharmonia Orchestra (1964) [33 minutes] and Emerson, Lake, and Palmer's live performance (1971): visual ("Promenade" and "The Gnome") and recording [44 minutes].
THEME: New ways of understanding humanity through philosophy and the arts at the turn of the century (1900).
NIETZSCHE (German) -- Nietzsche, Freud and the Thrust Toward Modernism 1 and 2 (The History Place) and Friedrich Nietzsche (Three Minute Philosophy). Optional: The Revolt Against the Western Intellectual Tradition: Friedrich Nietzsche and the Birth of Modernism (The History Guide) and Nietzsche: Beyond Good and Evil (BBC) [50 minutes].
FREUD (Austrian) -- Either Sigmund Freud: Exploring the Unconscious (serious) [25 minutes] or Sigmund Freud (serious fun) (BBC: Mark Steel) [30 minutes]. Optional: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy; Sigmund Freud Museum, Vienna; The full Interpretation of Dreams in English translation (1911); Sigmund Freud [51 minutes]; Dream Interpretation Online Course [2 minutes]; City of Dreams (Vienna 1900-1935): Sigmund Freud (Philharmonia Orchestra) [4 minutes]; 1913: When Hitler, Trotsky, Tito, Freud and Stalin all lived in the same place (BBC).
Study the red works and at least two other art works below:
SYMBOLISM -- Modern Art Timeline 1: Artists, Movements and Styles in Modern Art (1870-1930) (Artyfactory). Optional: Symbolism and Art Nouveau (Khan Academy); Dancing over the edge: Vienna in 1914 (BBC); City of Dreams (Vienna 1900-1935): Social Changes in 20th Century Vienna [6 minutes], Popular Culture [5 minutes], Technology in Vienna [3 minutes], and Art in Vienna Part 2 [3.30 minutes] (Philharmonia Orchestra); The Art of the Western World, 8: Into the Twentieth Century, Part I; The Secession Building (Secession); Otto Wagner, Post Office Savings Bank (1906); Vienna Secession: Klimt, Freud, and Jung (Suites Culturelles); and The Allure of Art Nouveau: Vienna (BBC) [57 minutes].
Gustav Klimt (Austrian) -- Optional: Andrew Graham-Dixon on Klimt [6.30 minutes].
The Beethoven Frieze (1902) -- Smarthistory; The Beethoven Frieze and The Secession at the end of World War II (Secession). Optional: The Secession Project (Washington U.: Vienna 1900) and Heirs Press Austria to Return Looted Klimt Frieze (NY Times, 2013).
Death and Life (1910-15) -- Smarthistory.
SURREALISM -- The Art Story. Optional: Surrealism: The Dream of Revolution (All Art); Surrealism (The Minneapolis Museum of Arts); and Surrealism and Freudian Theory and The Surrealist Object (Art History Unstuffed).
Arnold Böcklin -- WGA.
The Scream (1893) -- National Museum (Oslo); Smarthistory; and Edvard Munch's The Scream analysed - interactive (The Guardian). Optional: Art History in a Hurry [3.30 minutes]; Live with Art (Nora Buñuel); Learner: Art through Time; Private Life of a Masterpiece: Munch (BBC) [47 minutes]; and Edvard Munch's iconic artwork The Scream sold for $120m (BBC, 2012).
Salvador Dali (Catalan) -- Optional: Salvador Dali (Art History).
The Dream (1931).
Study for “The Image Disappears” (1938) -- Jan Vermeer, Woman in Blue Reading a Letter (c. 1662-63): WGA and The J. Paul Getty Museum; Drawing Surrealism in New York (Digital Journal); and Girl with a Hoop Earring: Fun with Vermeer (ARTnews).
The Face of War (1940) -- Wikipedia.
Rene Magritte (French) -- Optional: Art History and All I Have to Do Is Dream: Rene Magritte's Time Transfixed (Gio's Paint Brush) [8 minutes].
Birth of the World (1925) -- MoMA.
Alberto Giacometti (Swiss)
MUSIC -- Study at least one piece:
Sir Edward Elgar, Pomp and Circumstance, No. 1 (1901) -- A guide to Pomp and Circumstance March No 1, including "Why Americans graduate to Elgar" (The Elgar Society); and performance, with Elgar conducting (1931) [2.30 minutes]. Optional: His life (The Elgar Society).
Arnold Schoenberg, Pierrot lunaire (Moonstruck Pierrot, 1912) -- information (Los Angeles Philharmonic) and performance (excerpts) [5 minutes]. Optional: Notes and text (U. Iowa); A Study Guide (Luna Nova); and ‘Ears of the Future’: Schoenberg’s Pierrot Lunaire at 100 (The Boston Globe).
THEME: More new ways of understanding humanity through the arts (early 20C).
STRAVNISKY -- Stravinsky's Rite of Spring (PBS) [55 minutes] and Pablo Picasso, Igor Stravinsky (1920). Optional: Stravinsky, Rite of Spring (Keeping Score): "A Riotous Premier" and "Explore the Score;" Stravinsky (ArtsAlive); Riot at the Rite (BBC): notes on a 2005 TV drama and the film, with the performance beginning in Part 4; Milestones of the Millennium: The Rite of Spring (NPR); 100 years on: Igor Stravinsky on The Rite of Spring (TLS, 2013); Listening Guide: Stravinsky's Rite of Spring, Esa-Pekka Salonen on The Rite of Spring, Philharmonia on Tour: Paris & The Rite of Spring (2013), Listening Guide: Stravinsky's The Firebird Suite, and Listening Guide: Stravinsky's The Firebird Suite (Paul Rissmann) (Philharmonia Orchestra); Early Twentieth-Century Russian Drama; Costume from The Rite of Spring (W&AM); Listening Outline (Kamien's Music: An Appreciation); and Igor Stravinsky: Picture Gallery (Classical Music Pages).
Performance -- The Rite of Spring: Joffrey Ballet (1987) [30 minutes]. Optional: Walt Disney, Fantasia: Part 1: Genesis (1942): Disney's animated interpretation of The Rite of Spring [7.30 minutes], with Part 2: Evolution [9 minutes] and Part 3: Extinction [5 minutes]; The Joffrey Ballet Resurrects The Rite of Spring (NEA); and Le Sacre du Sacre, a composition student in The Netherlands breaks and bends a few musical rules, beginning with Stravinsky [4.30 minutes].
MODERNISM -- Optional: Early abstraction: Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism and Futurism (Khan Academy); La Belle Epoque: Paris 1914 and Berlin 1914: A city of ambition and self-doubt (BBC); The Art of the Western World, 8: Into the Twentieth Century, Part I; Herbert Kline's The Challenge: A Tribute to Modern Art [100 minutes]. Aspects of Modernism: The Visual Arts, 1863-1939 and Comparing Modern Art: Realism and the Beginnings of Modernism (Wadsworth Modules); and Modern Art Timeline 2: Artists, Movements and Styles in Modern Art (1916-1975) (Artyfactory).
Study the red items below and at least one other work by any other artist:
ART NOUVEAU -- The Art Story. Optional: Art Deco and Art Deco Byzantine-Deco architecture (Essential Architecture).
Sagrada Família Basilica (1882-sometime) -- Smarthistory; Sacred Destinations; and How Gaudi's finished Sagrada Família cathedral in Barcelona will look (The Telegraph). Optional: AD Classics (ArchDaily) and Digital Imaging Project.
FAUVISM -- The Art Story; Smarthistory; and Fauvism: New Possibilities for Color in Art (Artyfactory).
Henri Matisse (French) -- Henri Matisse: Still Life Painting (Artyfactory). Optional: Get to Know Henri Matisse (High Museum); Artchive; Modern Masters: Henri Matisse (BBC) [51 minutes]; and Sister Wendy's Grand Tour, 8: Paris: Matisse, The Conversation (1994) [minute 3.23-6.18].
CUBISM -- The Art Story and Cubism: The First Style of Abstract Art (Artyfactory). Optional: Artchive; Cubism (MMOA); The MoMA's Hot Mamas and Gender and Sexuality in European Art from the Late Nineteenth to the Early Twentieth Centuries (Farber); and Cubist architecture (Essential Architecture).
Early Work (1893-1905) -- Smarthistory.
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) -- PBS and Smarthistory. Optional: Nothing like It (Thomas Hoving); The Influence of African Art on Cubism (culturalstudies4); Picasso, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (BBC: Private Life of a Masterpiece) [50 minutes]; and Robert Colescott, Les Demoiselles d'Alabama (1985).
Still-Life with Chair Caning (1912) -- Smarthistory.
Georges Braque (Spanish) -- Artchive.
EXPRESSIONISM -- Expressionism: The Spirit of Expressionist Art (Artyfactory) and WebMuseum. Optional: 20th C Expressionism: Klimt, Munch, and Kirchner (Mencher) [31 minutes]; German Expressionism and Der Blaue Reiter (MOMA); and German Expressionism, Der Blaue Reiter, and Der Blaue Reiter Painting (Art History Unstuffed).
DADA -- The Art Story. Optional: Dada (Mencher) [35 minutes]; DADA Companion; Dada on Display at the National Gallery of Art (NPR); Dada and the Great War (Art History Unstuffed); and Behold the Buffoon’: Dada, Nietzsche’s Ecce Homo and the Sublime (Tate: The Art of the Sublime).
Ready-Mades (1912-17) -- Smarthistory.
Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 (1912) -- Philadelphia of Art and 'Armory Show' That Shocked America In 1913, Celebrates 100 (NPR, 2013).
Fountain (1917/1964) -- Tate; Smarthistory; and Duchamp's Fountain: The practical joke that launched an artistic revolution (The Telegraph). Optional: Ready Mades (DADA Companion).
THE GREAT WAR, I: The Somme
THEME: The First War to End All Wars redefines realities (1914-18).
WORLD WAR I -- The Western Tradition, 47: The First World War and the Rise of Fascism [end at minute 7.45] and Europe Plunges into War (The Map as History). Optional: The Origins of World War I (Wadsworth Modules); Beginning of World War I (Khan Academy); If WWI were a bar fight; World War I (EmperorTigerstar) [3.30 minutes]; World War One (Modern World History: Interactive Textbook); World War I, 1914-1918 (McDougal Littell: Animated History); War and Revolution, World War I: the European and Middle Eastern Theaters, and World War I: the Global Theater (Norton iMaps); Campaign Atlas to the Great War (US Military Academy); and 1917: Did the War Cause a Revolution? (Digital History Reader).
BALKANS -- Militarism and Alliances in Europe, 1914 (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations) and The Origins of World War I: "Setting" and "Map" (Wadsworth: History Unbound). Optional: The Balkans, 1878 and 1914, and Europe in 1914 (McGraw-Hill); and The Balkans, 1878 and 1914, Europe in 1914, and Europe on the Eve of World War I (Wadsworth).
WESTERN FRONT -- The Western Front (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations). Optional: Western and Eastern fronts of World War I and Other fronts of World War I (Khan Academy); War in Europe, 1914-1918 and Trench Warfare (McDougal Littell: Animated History); Lessons of the Great War: All Quiet on the Western Front (Thomson Learning Center): "Movie Description" and "Historical Background," and the full original movie [2.08 hours] made from Erich Maria Remarque's novel; The First World War, World War I in Europe, 1914-1918, The Western Front, 1914-1918, WWI: Western Front, The Western Front, and Territorial Gains, 1914-19 (McGraw-Hill); America in World War I and Influenza Epidemic (McGraw-Hill: Interactive Map Quiz); World War I Troop Strength and Casualties (Wadsworth); All Quiet on the Western Front - Book Summary & Analysis (Thug Notes); and Death on the eve of Armistice (The Open University: Michael Palin).
Christmas Truce (1914) -- Christmas Truce (25 December 1914) (Iconic Photos) and John McCutcheon's performance [6.30 minutes] Optional: Christmas in the Trenches, 1914 (EyeWitness to History); 'A football was kicked out of our trenches and we played the Germans': Poignant letter recounting famous 1914 Christmas Day truce rediscovered nearly 100 years on (Daily Mail, 2012); McCutcheon's lyrics (Art of World War I); Silent Night opera (PBS, 2013) [2 hours]; and World War One Christmas truce football match to be recreated (BBC).
THE SOMME (1916) -- The Battle of the Somme (PBS), and Battle of the Somme: 1 July-13 November 1916 and Animated Map: Battle of the Somme (BBC). Optional: The Somme (War Walks: Richard Holmes, 1996) [29 minutes]; Battle of the Somme (Line of Fire) [40 minutes]; Battle of the Somme (BBC History Trail); The Human Face of War, and World War I soldier wills digitised for online archive (BBC); Why was the Battle of the Somme film bigger than Star Wars? (BBC: iWonder); Battle of the Somme: Battlefield, Film, Photographs, and Texts (including a lengthy excerpt from Robert Graves' Goodbye to All That); Thiepval Memorial (Australians on the Western Front, 1914-1918); Thiepval War Memorial Virtual Tour (BBC); The Trench (1999): ending [10 minutes]; The Somme (War Walks: Richard Holmes, 1996) [29 minutes]; The Battle of the Somme (CWGC); and Battle of the Somme: 1 July-13 November 1916, The Human Face of War, and World War I soldier wills digitised for online archive (BBC); and Ypres and the Somme Today (Echoes of War).
Monument -- Sir Edwin Lutyens: Monument to the Missing of the Battle of the Somme, Thiepval, France, 1932 (A Digital Archive of Architecture).
ART -- Optional: World War I and Dada (Khan Academy); British Art and Literature During WWI (Smarthistory) and The Art of War (BBC War Art Documentary). Study at least two works by two different artists:
Otto Dix (German) -- History of Art; Otto Dix: Postcards from the Front [60 minutes]; Otto Dix War; Art of the First World War: Guided Tour; and Propaganda Posters (First World War: A Multimedia History of World War One).
Trench Warfare -- Otto Dix (1891-1969): Life and Death in the Trenches and Goya and Dix's Scenes of Execution, Disasters of War (c. 1810-15) (Abrahams).
Triptychon Der Krieg (War Triptych) (1929-32) -- Art of the First World War and Unpacking a painting (Wordpress: Reflections). Optional: Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden and The Art of War: Otto Dix’s Der Krieg [War] cycle 1924 (National Gallery of Australia).
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner,
Self-Portrait as a Soldier (1915) -- GHDI.
Paul Nash (British) -- biography (firstworldwar.com: A Multimedia History of World War One).
John Singer Sargent ('murican)
Sandham Memorial Chapel (1926-32, Burghclere, Hampshire, England) -- Art-Threads. Optional: National Trust and National Trust Collections; Paintings at National Trust, Sandham Memorial Chapel (BBC); and Art from Different Fronts of World War One (BBC).
MUSIC (Optional) -- The Great War, text and audio [25 minutes] (NPR's Performance Today: Milestones of the Millennium), with artists and works referenced below; and Vaughan Williams: At War (Philharmonia Orchestra).
Wind Quintet, Op. 26 (1924) -- Part 1.
John Alden Carpenter
George Gershwin -- biography (PBS: American Masters).
THEME: Russia emerges from World War I with totalitarian socialism (1917-41).
USSR -- War and Revolution in Russia 1914-1921 (BBC); "A New World Arisen": Russia's Revolutions, 1900-1924: Setting, Power on Paper, and Perspectives (Wadsworth: History Unbound); and The Age of Totalitarianism: Stalin and Hitler: through Stalin (The History Guide). Optional: Seventeen Moments in Soviet History; Lectures on Twentieth Century Europe, 5-7 (The History Place); Russia in the 20th Century (Mapping History); The Soviet Union, 1928-1941 (Pearson: Audio Guided Tour); The Face of Russia (PBS); Russian Revolution (Internet Modern History Sourcebook); Early Twenty-Century Russian Drama: Designers, Directors, Plays, and Visual Arts (Northwestern U. Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures); and Alexander Palace Time Machine.
STALINISM -- Study at least one topic:
Lenin -- 1924: Death of Lenin and Lenin's Succession: essay, images, and video (Seventeen Moments in Soviet History); Five Lenin statues in unexpected places (BBC, 2013); and Lenin Statue, Seattle, WA (Roadside America).
Collectivization (1929) -- 1929: Collectivization (Seventeen Moments in Soviet History).
Terror -- 1936: The Great Terror and Year of the Stakhanovite: essays, images, and videos (Seventeen Moments in Soviet History); Lenin Addresses the Crowds and Stalin Cult of Personality (Rolfs: The Falsification of Photographs in Stalin's Russia- Another Example of the Reign of Terror in the 1930’s); and at least two items at Soviet Posters, 1917-1991: "Soviet collectivization & industrialization" and "Great Purge & Stalin."
Cult of Personality -- 1939: Cult of Personality: essay, images, and video (Seventeen Moments in Soviet History).
Children -- Vasilii Svarog, Stalin and Members of the Politbureau in the midst of Children in Gorky Park (1931); 1936: Childhood under Stalin (Seventeen Moments in Soviet History); Unforgettable Moment) (Rolfs: The Falsification of Photographs in Stalin's Russia); and Friend of the Little Children (Iconic Photos).
ARCHITECTURE -- Study at least one work:
Vladimir Tatlin, Tower: Monument to the Third International (1919-20 unfinished) -- Wikipedia and photograph of a model (November 1920, Petrograd); and Tatlin's Tower: The Monument to the Future that Never Was (World History Connected).
Moscow Metro (1934-present) -- 1934: The Moscow Metro (Seventeen Moments in Soviet History); Moscow, 1930s , Part 1 and Part 2 (Totalitarian Art: Werckmeister); and Soviet Socialist Realism on the Subway Murals (English Russia).
Moscow -- 1936: Rebuilding of Moscow (Seventeen Moments in Soviet History).
Great Fergana Canal (1939) -- 1939: Great Fergana Canal (Seventeen Moments in Soviet History).
ART -- Study at least one work:
Soviet Realism -- 1934: Socialist Realism (Seventeen Moments in Soviet History); Neorealism and Socialist Realism (Early Twenty-Century Russian Drama); and Socialist Realism: Lenin and Stalin (Page 1) and beyond (Page 2) (Art History). Optional: Socialist realism: The History of Russian art in 15 paintings. PART I (The Voice of Russia); Stepanova's The Results of the First Five-Year Plan, 1932 (Smarthistory); Soviet Posters (International Institute of Social History); and Socialist Realism (Virtual Museum of Political Art).
III: Berlin and Rome
THEME: In the inter-war era, Germany and Italy transform into powerful totalitarian fascist nations (1919-39).
THE LONG WEEKEND -- Europe After World War I (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations); The Western Tradition, 47: The First World War and the Rise of Fascism [begin at minute 7.45]; and Europe after World War I (The Map as History). Optional: The Age of Anxiety: Europe in the 1920s (1) and (2) (The History Guide); Treaty of Versailles Activity (BBC); Norton iMaps; The End of Optimism? The Great Depression in Europe (Digital History Reader); Changes in Europe, 1919 and Politics in Europe, 1930s (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations); Territorial Settlements 1919-26 and The League of Nations (McGraw-Hill); Post-War Europe 1919 (McDougal Littell); and The Political Revolution of the 1930s (Mapping History).
GERMANY -- The Age of Totalitarianism: Stalin and Hitler: study Hitler (The History Guide) and The Swastika: Catawba College's annual. Optional: The Weimar Republic: The Fragility of Democracy (Facing History and Ourselves); Rise of Hitler and the Nazis and Rise of Mussolini and Fascism (Khan Academy); and The Fatal Attraction of Adolf Hitler (BBC). Study at least one topic:
Concentration camps -- Concentration Camps, 1933-1939, Dachau, and Dachau concentration camp (USHMM). Optional: Dachau KZ (Traces of Evil: Remaining Nazi Sites in Germany) and Dachau Concentration Camp (Third Reich in Ruins).
Book burning -- Culture in the Third Reich: Overview and Book Burning (USHMM); and Against the Un-German Spirit: Book-Burning Ceremony in Berlin (May 10, 1933), image one and two (GHDI).
1936 Olympics -- Nazi Olympics, Berlin 1936 (USHMM) and Olympic Stadium (Essential Architecture). Optional: The Berlin Olympics (The History Place); Josef Thorak, Bust of Hitler at Olympic Stadium (1936); Sculpture by Joseph Thorak on the Berlin Reich Sports Field (1937) (GHDI); Berlin: Reichssportfeld and 1936 Olympics Site (Third Reich in Ruins); The Nazi Olympics (August 1936) (Jewish Virtual Library); Nazi Olympics Tangled Politics and Sport (NPR); The shameful legacy of the Olympic Games (The Guardian); Hitler's 'Battle of the Colors': Doubt Cast on Olympic Friendship between Owens and Long (Spiegel Online International, 2012); London 2012 Olympics: torch relay began life as propaganda for Nazi Germany (The Telegraph); Pioneering Olympian Halet Cambel, who snubbed Hitler (BBC, 2012); and Führer Pennant in the Berlin Olympic Stadium during the Olympic Games (1936) (GHDI).
PROPAGANDA -- The Power of Nazi Propaganda (Reason TV on USHMM exhibit) [6 minutes] and The Führer and Youth (Adolf Hitler with a Little Girl), Postcard (1933) (GHDI). Optional: State of Deception: The Power of Nazi Propaganda and May 10, 1933, The Burning of Books [3 minutes] (USHMM); Nazi Propaganda and The Fatal Attraction of Adolf Hitler (BBC); Nazi and East German Propaganda (Calvin College); "Reich Party Rally for Freedom," Nuremberg (September 1, 1935) and Display Window with Busts of Hitler: Souvenirs from the "Reich Party Rally for Freedom," Nuremberg (Fall 1935) (GHDI); Art as a Political Statement in the 1930s (Online And study Guide for Gardner's Art through the Ages: The Western Perspective); Walt Disney, The Story of One of "Hitler's Children" as Adopted from Education for Death (1943) [10 minutes]; and Roger Ebert's review of Triumph of the Will.
Speech -- Hitler practices his speech (1927) (Iconic Photos); Hitler's speech at the Nazi Party Conference in Nuremburg, captured by Leni Riefenstahl's film Triumph of the Will (1934) [11 minutes]; and Charlie Chaplin mocks Adolf Hitler: Hynkel speech [5.30 minutes].
ARCHITECTURE -- Optional: Order from Stone: Nazi Architecture (U. Michigan: Art under Fascism); and Top Ten Nazi Architecture and Fascist Stripped Classical (German) (Essential Architecture). Study at least one topic:
Autobahns (1932) -- Essential Architecture.
Zeppelinfeld, Nuremburg Party Rally Grounds (1937) -- Essential Architecture and Zeppelin Field and Grandstand on the Nazi Party Rally Grounds in Nuremberg (1938) (GHDI). Optional: Nuremberg Nazi Party Rally Grounds (Traces of Evil: Remaining Nazi Sites in Germany); Nürnberg (Nuremberg) and Nürnberg Part 2: The Nazi Party Rally Grounds (Third Reich in Ruins); Nürnberg (The Hitler Pages: Historical Hitler Sites); and Nuremberg and Berlin (Totalitarian Art: Werckmeister).
New Reich Chancellery -- The New Reich Chancellery, Designed by Albert Speer (c. 1940) (GHDI).
World Capital Germania (unrealized) -- Essential Architecture; Model of the "World Capital City Germania," Built According to Plans by Albert Speer (1939) (GHDI); and Computerized view of Speer's Proposed Berlin [1.30 minutes].
Volkshalle (unrealized) -- Essential Architecture.
NAZI ART -- Art in Nazi Germany (Smarthistory). Optional: Degenerate art: Why Hitler hated modernism (BBC); House of German Art and the Degenerate Art Show photographs (1937) (Totalitarian Art: Werckmeister); The Nazi Aesthetic: New Online Database Makes Third Reich Art Public (Spiegel, 2011) and GDK Research – research platform for images of the Great German Art Exhibitions 1937-1944 in Munich, with tour of rooms and search engine, with depictions of Hitler; Nazi History Painting (Painting History); Naked bodies, ideal world: Online archive shows Hitler's artistic vision (DW); House of German Art (Haus der Deutschen Kunst) (Traces of Evil: Remaining Nazi Sites in Germany); Haus der Deutschen Kunst, Munich (Third Reich in Ruins); Nazi Approved Art (Florida Holocaust Museum); The Visualisation of National Socialist Ideology; Works of Art from Nazi Germany (Skidmore); Chaos and Classicism: Art in France, Italy, and Germany, 1918-1936 (The Guggenheim on Art Babble); German Art in its Nazi Expression and Arno Breker: Hitler's Michelangelo (Searching for Hitler and His Henchmen); The Visualisation of National Socialist Ideology (The Censure of Democracy); First "Great German Art Exhibition": "Direction-Setting Works of German Art" (July 18, 1937) (GHDI); and Berlin (Totalitarian Art). And study at least one artwork:
Heinrich Knirr -- Hitler, the Creator of the Third Reich and Renewer of German Art (1937).
Fritz Erler -- Hitler (1938).
Myron (1938) -- Hitler dedicating Myron's Discobol in Munich Glyptothek (Totalitarian Art: Werckmeister) and Myron of Eleutherae, Discobolus (Discus Thrower) (c. 450 BC, Roman copy).
Adolf Wissel -- Kahlenberger Farmer Family (1939).
FASCISM -- Europe 1933, Italy indicated and Italy, 1939 (USHMM); and Hitler visits Rome (1938): brief article (History Today) and video [1.30 minutes]. Optional: Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) (BBC); Benito Mussolini: What is Fascism, 1932 (Modern History Sourcebook); Hitler Visits Italy: pictures (1934) (The Hitler Pages: Historical Hitler Sites); and Carl Mydans, The Elderly Butcher Boy of Fascism (09 May 1940) (Iconic Photos).
FUTURISM -- Italian Futurism: An Introduction and Three Futurists: Balla, Severini and Boccioni (1929) (Smarthistory). Optional: The Art Story and Futurist architecture (Essential Architecture). And study at least one art work:
FASCIST ART (Optional) -- Rome (Totalitarian Art: Werckmeister); Rationalist-Fascist Architecture (Italian Fascist) and Esposizione Universale Roma (EUR, 1935) (Essential Architecture).
THEME: Competing ideologies drive Europe into the Second War to End All Wars, anticipated by the Spanish Civil War and captured by Picasso's Guernica (1930s).
MOVING TOWARD WORLD WAR II -- German and Italian Expansion, 1935-1939, Hitler's Actions in Europe 1936-1939, and The Causes of World War II in Europe, 1935-1939 (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations). Optional: German gains, 1936-1938 and Partition of Czechoslovakia, 1938-1939 (USHMM); Aggression in Europe, 1931-1939 and Aggression in Asia, 1931-1939 (McDougal Littell: Animated History); and Europe at War (Norton iMaps).
SPANISH CIVIL WAR (1936-39) -- Salvador Dali, Soft Construction with Boiled Beans (Premonition of Civil War) (1936). Optional: Paths of Memory: 1936-1939 (European Union Culture 2000); The Spanish Civil War (EmperorTigerstar); The Visual Front: Posters of the Spanish Civil War from UCSD's Southworth Collection (U. of CA at San Diego); and The Spanish Civil War (BBC: In Our Time) [45-minute audio].
GUERNICA (1937) -- Picasso's Guernica (Smarthistory); Guernica: Testimony of War: film [begin at minute 29.15 (25 minutes total)] and text (PBS: Treasures of the World); and Guernica (2002): Marcelo Ricardo Ortiz's clever 3D animation with Duran Duran (The Chauffer, 1983), Vincent van Gogh (Bedroom in Arles, 1888), Salvador Dali (The Persistence of Memory, 1931), M. C. Escher (Relativity, 1953), and Picasso (Guernica). Optional: The Legacy of Guernica (BBC); War and Peace in the Art of Pablo Picasso: "Guernica" (1937) and Pablo Picasso (1881-1973): From the Spanish Civil War to Vietnam (David Hart); Farber; Artyfactory; Gio's Paint Brush [6 minutes]; Totalitarian Art; and Keiskamma Guernica (2010).
Soviet Pavilion -- Totalitarian Art (Wordpress); Air View of Trocadéro, Plaza, and Soviet and German Pavilions and Soviet Pavilion contemporary color photograph (Totalitarian Art: Werckmeister); and video [1 minute]. Optional: Paris Expo photographs (Totalitarian Art: Werckmeister) an Paris World Exhibition 1937 (flickr).
Vera Mukhina, Worker and Collective Farm Woman -- Wikipedia; Long live the Union of the workers and peasants - the basis of the Soviet power (Soviet Posters); Mosfilm: introduction view; Nike of Samothrace (c. 220-185 BC); François Rude, La Marseillaise (The Departure of the Volunteers of 1792) (1833-6). Optional: Worker and Kolkhoz Woman Monument (Moscow Insiders Guide); Dave's Russia Page; Flickr; Sergei Gerasimov: Kolkhoz Holiday (1937); and Mosfilm masterpieces: Mikhail Kalatozov's The Cranes are Flying (1957), Sergei Bondarchuk's War and Peace (1966-67), Andrei Tarkovsky's Andrei Rublev (1969), Vladimir Motyl's White Sun of the Desert (1970), and Elem Klimov's Come and See (1985).
German Pavilion (Albert Speer) -- German Pavilion at Paris Expo (color photograph) (Totalitarian Art: Werckmeister); and Country pavilions: click on 01:17:27:28 for the views of Germany (Allemagne), through the eagle symbol (USHMM).
DEGENERATE ART -- 1907-1960 Age of Global Conflict (Smarthistory): Picasso's Three Women at the Spring (1921), René Magritte's The Human Condition (1933), and Piet Mondrian's Broadway Boogie-Woogie (1943-44). Optional: Art between the wars: the avant-garde and the rise of totalitarianism and Architecture in the early 20th century (Khan Academy); Degenerate Art (Entartete Kunst) (U. of South Florida: A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust); Degenerate Art (Wikipedia); "Degenerate" Art (The Greatest Theft in History); From Picasso to Munich: Chaos and Classicism: Modernism between the Wars (Haber); Architecture in the Early 20th Century, Modernism, Bauhaus, DeStijl and International Style (Mencher) [27.30 minutes]; and 1925: The Year in Review (Artchive). And study at least one building or artwork:
Walter Gropius (German)
Lyonel Feininger (German)
László Moholy-Nagy (Hungarian)
Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) -- New Objectivity in German Art (Art History Unstuffed).
Chilehaus (1924, Hamburg) -- AD Classics.
Woolworth Building (1930, NYC) -- Smarthistory.
William van Alen
Frank Lloyd Wright
Fallingwater (1935, Bear Run, PA) -- Essential Architecture and AD Classics (ArchDaily). Optional: My Architectural Moleskin Part 1 and Part 2; No. 12 (The Guardian: Great Modern Buildings, 2007); Columbia U; The Life and Work of Frank Lloyd Wright (PBS); and Learner: Art Through Time.
Johnson Wax Administration Building (1939, Racine, WI) -- Essential Architecture.
Joan Miró, Woman Haunted by the Passage of the Bird-Dragonfly Omen of Bad News (1938) and information (Toledo Museum of Art) = Munich Agreement
WORDS -- Refugee Blues by W. H. Auden (1939) (Peace Pledge Union), To an Unknown Citizen (1939), and Funeral Blues (1936) recited in Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994) [2 minutes].
MUSIC -- Samuel Barber, Adagio for Strings (1936) [6 minutes] and The Impact of Barber's Adagio for Strings (NPR): read the main article and What Makes It Great: Barber's Adagio (read and listen from the "More Barber Stories" section) from National Public Radio's "All Things Considered" (2006). And study at least one other musical piece:
Bertolt Brecht and Kurt Weill, Die Dreigroschenoper (The Three Penny Opera, 1928), based on Gay, The Beggar's Opera (1728) -- information with all songs (The Kurt Weill Foundation for Music); premiere (History); Mack the Knife in German (Lotte Lenya, Weill's wife) [3.40] and English (Sting) [3 minutes]; and Gay's "Through All the Employments of Life" and Brecht/Weill's "Peachum's Morning Chorale" [3 minutes]. Optional: The Psychedelic Furs, Mack the Knife (1981) [4.30 minutes].
THEME: The Second War to End All Wars in Europe (1939-45).
WORLD WAR II -- The Western Heritage, 48: The Second World War; World War II (Crash Course World History and transcript); and World War Two: Summary Outline of Key Events (BBC). Optional: World War II: In Depth and Timeline (USHMM); Timeline of World War II (PBS: The War); Hitler and World War Two (The History Guide); The Second World War: five maps and Conflicts in WWII (Norton, requires Google Earth).
EUROPE -- World War II in Europe and North Africa, 1939-1941 and The War in Europe and North Africa, 1942-1945 (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations). Optional: and World War II in Europe: Summary and Timeline (USHMM);World War II: the European Theater (Norton iMaps); World War II in Europe and North Africa and Allied Advances and Collapse of German Power (Wadsworth); Europe, 1942 and Height of Axis Power 1942 (McGraw-Hill: Palmer); and World War II in Europe and Africa, 1942-1945 (McDougal Littell: Animated History).
FRANCE, Part I -- Animated Map: The Fall of France (Dunkirk) and The Fall of France (BBC). Optional: German Invasion of Western Europe, May 1940, German invasion of western Europe, 1940, German conquests in Europe, 1939-1942 map, and Occupation of the southern zone, November 1942 (USHMM); June 23, 1940 Paris (The Hitler Pages: Historical Hitler Sites).
BRITAIN -- Battle of Britain and The Blitz (BBC) and St. Paul's Cathedral during the Blitz: images only (Daily Mail). Optional: The Battle of Britain (BBC); The Bombers and the Bombed: Coventry, England (1940) and Lübeck, Germany (1942) (BBC: WW2 Movies); The Battle of Britain (History Animated); Balham in the Blitz and now – interactive: click on the image to change (14 October 1940) (The Guardian); and The Anglo-American raids on Hamburg during the Second World War (1943) (The Guardian).
AFRICA -- Animated Map: The North African Campaign (BBC). Optional: Southern Europe and North Africa Campaign Interactive Map (EDSITEment!); North African Campaigns, 1942-1945 (Pearson); North Africa (History Animated); The Battle of El Alamein, Animated Map: The Battle of El Alamein, Allied Landings in French North Africa and Second Battle of El Alamein (BBC); Focus on: Kasserine Pass (The National WWII Museum, New Orleans); and Poet Keith Douglas on El Alamein (The Guardian)
ITALY -- Animated Map: The Italian Campaign (BBC). Optional: Defeat of Nazi Germany, 1942-1945 and Italy (USHMM); The 'D-Day Dodgers', Allied Landings in Sicily, Allied Landings in Italy, Battle of Monte Cassino and World War Two: The Battle of Monte Cassino (BBC); German-occupied areas of Italy, 1943, Major Nazi camps in Occupied Italy, 1943-1944, Italy, camps for displaced persons, and Deportations from Italy, 1943-1945 (USHMM); The Man Who Never Was and Jean Leslie (1923-2010); Focus on: Stalemate at Anzio (The National WWII Museum, New Orleans); The Battles of Cassino, 1944 (Commonwealth War Graves Commission: Information Leaflets); and Roger Waters pens poem for veteran who found father's place of death (Anzio, 1944) (The Guardian).
FRANCE, Part II: Normandy (1944) -- D-Day (Pearson: Events that changed the world); Operation Overlord: D-Day to Paris and Animated Map: Operation Overlord (BBC); and North Europe Campaign Interactive Map (EDSITEment!). Optional: Special Section: D-Day and Operation Overlord (BBC); Encyclopedia Britannica's Guide to Normandy 1944; The Normandy Landings: text and animated map (The War Times Journal); D-Day (Guardian); D-Day (McGraw-Hill: Beyond the Textbook); The Allies Land on D-Day (Pearson: History Interactive); and Saving Private Ryan (1998): Parts 1, 2, and 3.
BERLIN -- The Battle for Berlin in World War Two and World War Two: How the Allies Won (BBC); and Three Flags of Khaldei (Iconic Photos). Optional: Ian Kershaw, "Europe's Second Thirty Years War," History Today, 55/9 (2005); Victory in Europe and Japan (BBC) and End of the War in the Main-Spessart Region (Third Reich in Ruins); Battle off the Bulge: shorter and longer versions (BBC) and USHMM; Why Hitler's grand plan during the second world war collapsed (The Guardian); Köln and Pariser Platz an Reichstag (Traces of Evil: Remaining Nazi Sites in Germany); Nuremberg and Berlin (Totalitarian Art: Werckmeister); and Battle of Berlin: Part 2 and Raising Flag Over the Reichstag, When Hitler Met His End, and The End of the Thousand-Year Reich (Iconic Photos).
THEME: The Second War to End All Wars in Asia and the Pacific (1935-45).
WORLD WAR II: Asia and the Pacific -- World War II: Pacific, 1939-1945 (The National Archives) [6 minutes] and World War II in the Pacific and Pacific Basin, Japanese expansion (USHMM) Optional: World War II Pacific Animated Maps (History Animated); World War Two: The Pacific Theater (Mapping History); and Ken Burns' The War (PBS, 2007), with full episodes at NCLive.
Maps (study at least two) -- War in the Pacific, 1936-45 and World War II in Asia and the Pacific, 1941-1945 (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations); World War II in the Pacific, 1941-1945 (McDougal Littell: Animated History -- choose VA if needed); World War II in Asia and the Pacific (Wadsworth); The Second World War: Pacific and WWII in the Pacific (McGraw-Hill: Palmer); and Aggression in Asia, 1931-1939 (McDougal Littell: Chapter Maps); and World War II: the Pacific Theater (Norton iMaps).
SINGAPORE (8 December 1941-15 February 1942) -- Wikipedia: first two paragraphs; The Battle for Malaya (History Animated); and Jack Sharpe (Iconic Photos). Optional: Fall Singapore and Malaya (BBC) and Fall of Singapore (Australia's War 1939-1945). Optional: The Surrender of Singapore (15 February 1942) (Iconic Photos); "I Will Walk Out On My Own Two Feet" (CM War Stories, 2006); Horror of the fall recalled in POW homage (The Guardian, 2002); and Kranji War Cemetery and the Singapore Memorials (Commonwealth War Graves Commission: Information Leaflets).
DOOLITTLE RAID (18 April 1942) -- EyeWitness to History: introduction and History Animated. Optional: Naval History & Heritage.
BURMA -- The Burma Campaign, The Burma Campaign 1941-1945, and Animated Map: The Burma Campaign (BBC). Optional: Maps of the China-Burma-India Theater of World War II and Defence of Imphal and Kohima (BBC); Revealed: The terrible suffering and extraordinary courage of British WW2 soldiers fighting the Japanese in the Burmese jungle (Mail Online); and The Burma-Siam Railway and Its Cemeteries (Commonwealth War Graves Commission: Information Leaflets).
Kon Ichikawa, The Burmese Harp (1956) -- Criterion Collection, with a trailer [4 minutes] and essay. Optional: TCM; Harp of Burma (Ronald P. Loftus); and Kon Ichikawa’s The Burmese Harp: A Search for Redemption (The culture trip).
MIDWAY (03-07 June 1942) -- World War II in the Pacific (Houghton Mifflin); The Battle of Midway, 1942 (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations); The Battle of Midway (BBC); and Island-Hopping in the Pacific, 1942-1945 (McGraw-Hill: Maps in Motion). Optional: Battle of Midway: The Japanese Attack and The American Counterattack (US Navy History) [9 minutes]; History Animated; and Catawba Alumnus Pilot of Famous Flying Dud.
GUADALCANAL (August 1942-February 1943) -- History Animated. Optional: Focus on: Guadalcanal (The National WWII Museum, New Orleans); Guadalcanal Campaign (Naval History & Heritage); First Offensive: The Marine Campaign For Guadalcanal (Marines in World War II Commemorative Series); and Hell in the Pacific: The rare pictures that reveal reality of the Battle of Guadalcanal (Mail Online).
Leyte Gulf (October 1944) -- Timeline: The War in the Pacific, 1944-1945 and Major Pacific Battles (PBS: American Experience: Victory in the Pacific); WWII: The Battle for Leyte (PBS: American Experience: MacArthur); and History Animated.
IWO JIMA (February-March 1945) -- History Animated; The First Flag on Iwo Jima (Iconic Photos); and Japan: No Surrender in World War Two (BBC). Optional: Japan's Plan (PBS: American Experience: Victory in the Pacific).
OKINAWA (April-June 1945) -- History Animated. Optional: Profile: Japan's Okinawa (BBC); Ken Burn's The War, Episode 7: A World Without War -- March 1945-September 1945 (PBS) [minutes 0.00.00-0.27.15 and 0.54.20-1.05.17]; and Civilians on Okinawa (PBS: American Experience: Victory in the Pacific).
HIROSHIMA and NAGASAKI (06 and 09 August 1945) -- Hiroshima and Nagasaki: How the Atomic Bomb Changed Warfare During WWII (Education Portal); Nuclear Power: The End of the War Against Japan (BBC); and Keisuke Yamamoto, Hiroshima (1948). Optional: Hiroshima remembers atomic bomb (BBC).
VJ -- The Costs of War (PBS: American Experience: Victory in the Pacific); VJ Day (BBC); and VJ Day Kiss (Iconic Photos).
HUMANE RIGHTS, I: Culture Wars
THEME: Casualties of the Second War to End All Wars, Part I: Culture (1933-45).
DEGENERATE ART -- Degenerate Art: Exhibition Guide (1937) (GHDI). Optional: Degenerate Art: "Take Dada Seriously! – It’s Worth It ", "German Peasants – From a Jewish Perspective", and Wilhelm Lehmbruck’s Large Kneeling Woman (1937), and "Degenerate Music": Title Page of the Exhibition Guide (1938) (GHDI); and Degenerate Art: The Nazis vs. Expressionism [56 minutes].
STOLEN ART -- Hitler's Museum: The Secret History of Art Theft during World War II, Part 2 [51 minutes]. Optional: Raping the Art in Europe (Searching for Hitler and His Henchmen); Hitler's Museum: The Secret History of Art Theft during World War II, Part 1 [51 minutes]; The Nazi Plundering of Europe (BBC: Secrets of World War II, 1998) [51 minutes]; Nazi Art Theft (National Geographic); Louvre: Le Louvre pendant la guerre (Liberation Culture), The Louvre During the War (Le Blog, 2009), and How the French Hid the Louvre’s Masterpieces During WWII (Twisted Sifter); Nazi Art Podcasts, Parts One, Two, and Three (Art History Unstuffed); Top 10 Famous Pieces of Art Stolen by the Nazis (toptenz); Führermuseum, Nazi plunder, and Soviet Trophy Brigades (Wikipedia); and Top Ten ARTnews Stories: Tracking the Trophy Brigade (2007).
The Rape of Europa -- The Rape of Europa trailer [3 minutes]. Optional: The Rape of Europa Website and PBS resources, with trailer and Monuments in Peril: The Rape of Europa lecture (Lynn Nicholas) [55 minutes].
MONUMENTS MEN (Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives program, 1943-46) -- The WWII soldiers who saved art (BBC, 2009) [3.30 minutes]; The Monuments Men and Women [5.30 minutes]; map (Harvard Magazine); and The Monuments Men film with trailer (2014). Optional: A. S. Pennoyer and the Monuments Men: photographic exhibit (Princeton U.); Monumental Mission (Smithsonian); Monuments Men Foundation for the Preservation of Art; Monuments Men: this commercial site supports Robert M. Edsel's The Mounments Men and Saving Italy (2013); Monuments Men: Tracking looted treasures (DW, 2013); World War II “Monuments Men” Archival Collections at the Archives of American Art (Smithsonian: Archives of American Art) for the exhibition (07 February-20 April 2014 exhibits; Treasure Hunters in Uniform: ‘Monuments Men’ Remembered (NY Times, February 2013); and National Archives Announces Discovery of "Hitler Albums" Documenting Looted Art (2007).
Henry Ettlinger -- Biography and video (Monuments Men Foundation for the Preservation of Art). Optional: Meet the Jersey guy who helped liberate art from Nazi Germany (NJ.com, 2010); 'Monuments Men' veteran predicts more Nazi-seized art will surface with interview [2 minutes] (Reuters, 21 November 2013); and In Rockaway Township, Ettlinger shares his story of Monuments Men (NorthJersey.com).
ART WORKS and BUILDINGS -- Study the items in red and at least one other art work or building for your Art/Map Profile:
Chartres Cathedral (12C-13C) -- "Is Art Worth a Life?" [1 minute] (Monuments Men Foundation).
Strasbourg Cathedral: stained glass (13C) -- saved and restored. Optional: The Monuments Men: Harry Ettlinger describes finding the stained glass windows of Strasbourg Cathedral in a salt mine (ARCA).
Monte Cassino (14C, Italy): monastery destroyed by Allies (February 1944) -- American B17 flying over the smoking abbey, destruction, more destruction, Battle of Monte Cassino (BBC), Sacred Destinations; and Paradoxplace.
Jan van Eyck
Ghent Altarpiece (1432, Ghent Cathedral) -- saved and restored: Smarthistory and WGA. Optional: Irresistible: How the Ghent Altarpiece Became the World's Most Frequently Stolen Artwork (Blouin Artinfo).
Altarpiece (1477-89, St. Mary's Basilica, Kraków): removed to Berlin (1941), recovered (1946), and returned to Kraków (1956) -- restored.
Leonardo da Vinci
Portrait of a Young Man (c. 1513-14, The Czartoryski Museum, Krakow): missing (Wikipedia and Monuments Men Foundation) since 1945, but perhaps rediscovered; and the contemporary Portrait of Bindo Altoviti (1512-15).
Peter Paul Rubens
Three Theological Virtues (Private Collection, Rome): "Stolen by soldiers of the German Army from the EGELI (Institute for Management and Sale of Property, Ministry of Finance) Repository in 1944" (Monuments Men Foundation) -- Monuments Men Foundation and Allegory on the Blessings of Peace (1629-30, National Gallery, London).
Amber Room (1701-11): gifted by the Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm I to Tsar Peter the Great (1716), installed in Catherine the Great's palace at Tsarskoye Selo outside Saint Petersburg, returned to Germany (1941), lost 1945, and recreated 2003 -- Mystery of the Amber Room (National Geographic: Treasure Wars) [6 minutes] and 60-year hunt for Russian Czars' missing Amber Room may be over after discovery in Germany (Daily Mail, 2011). Optional: A Brief History of the Amber Room (Smithsonian) and Five-ton ‘Amber Room’ worth $30mn found in Russia (RT, 2013).
Francisco de Goya
Manet Painting in Monet's Garden at Argenteuil (1874, Martha and Max Liebermann Collection, 1898-1943): "confiscated and sold in Berlin in 1943" (Monuments Men Foundation) -- photograph of Max Liebermann's Berlin apartment on Pariser Platz with Monet's painting in the corner of the middle wall (1932).
Vincent van Gogh
The Painter on His Way to Tarascon (1888, Kaiser-Friedrich Museum, Magdeburg, Germany): missing since 1945 (Monuments Men Foundation and Destroyed Van Gogh Artworks). Optional: Francis Bacon, Study for a Portrait of Van Gogh IV (1957, Tate) and On the Road to Tarascon: Francis Bacon Meets Vincent van Gogh.
Vase with Five Sunflowers (1888, private collection of Japanese industrialist Koyata Yamamoto, 1920-45): destroyed during American fire-bombing raid (5-6 August 1945) -- painting and Destroyed Van Gogh Artworks.
University of Vienna Ceiling Paintings: Philosophy, Medicine, and Jurisprudence (1900-07): burned during a fire set by retreating SS troops in the Schloss Immendorf in Lower Austria (1945) -- Wikipedia and Missing masterpieces: The greatest art show you'll never see, curated by Jonathan Jones (The Guardian).
THEME: Casualties of the Second War to End All Wars, Part I: People, captured by the Holocaust experiences depicted in Elie Wiesel's Night (1933-45).
THE HOLOCAUST -- The Final Solution (The Holocaust, The Shoah) (The Map as History); The Holocaust, 1939-1945 (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations); Introduction to the Holocaust: text and animated map, World War II and the Holocaust (Animated Map), Concentration Camps, 1942–1945, and European rail system, 1939 (USHMM). Optional: Genocide Under the Nazis (The Holocaust) (BBC); The Holocaust (McGraw-Hill); Memory of the Camps: Introduction, Map, and Full Program Online [53 minutes] (PBS); Mapping the SS Concentration Camp System over Space and Time (USHMM); Shtetl (PBS); The Holocaust (The Open University); and Deportation Railways and Hitler's "Final Solution": Jews Marked for Death (Norton iMaps).
Wannsee -- Wannsee Conference and the "Final Solution" (USHMM).
SIGHET -- Elie Wiesel, Romania 1933 (with Sighet Marmatiei indicated), Ghettos in occupied Hungary, 1944, and Deportations from Hungarian ghettos to Auschwitz (USHMM); and Life in Sighet, Romania, 1920-1939 (PBS: Elie Wiesel: First Person Singular). Optional: Night study and teachers' guides (Macmillan) and Oprah's Book Club.
AUSCHWITZ -- Auschwitz: text and animated map (USHMM) and Interactive Map (PBS: Auschwitz: Inside the Nazi State). Optional: A Virtual Tour of Auschwitz/Birkenau (Remember.org: A Cybrary of the Holocaust); The Last Expression: Art and Auschwitz; Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum (USHMM); and God on Trial (2009) [88 minutes].
AUSCHWITZ -- Beethoven's Violin Concerto in D major op. 61, the last movement of the concerto likely referenced on Night, p. 95: listen while reading the articles below [11 minutes].
DEATH MARCH -- Death Marches and Major death marches from Auschwitz (USHMM).
Buchenwald -- Buchenwald (USHMM). Optional: Buchenwald Concentration Camp (Third Reich in Ruins); and The Buchenwald and Mittebau-Dora Memorials Foundation and Buchenwald Concentration Camp (Scrapbookpages).
Liberation -- Liberation of Nazi Camps: text and maps and Aftermath of the Holocaust (USHMM). Optional: Belsen Concentration Camp's Liberation and The End of Belsen Murder Camp (The British Pathé War Archives, 1945) [4.30 minutes] and Wiesel Speaks at Buchenwald (05 July 2009) [2 minutes].
MEMORIALS -- Speech delivered by Elie Wiesel in 1995, at the ceremony to mark the 50th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz (PBS: Elie Wiesel: First Person Singular) Optional: Holocaust Memorials (Facing History and Ourselves) (PBS). And study at least one building.
REFUGEES -- European Refugee Movements After World War Two (BBC) and Aftermath of the Holocaust and Bergen-Belsen Displaced Persons Camp: text and map (USHMM).
Trials -- War Crimes Trials and Major European war crimes trials, 1943-1947 (USHMM). Optional: International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg and Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings (USHMM); Making Justice at Nuremberg, 1945-1946 and Nuremberg: Nazis On Trial (BBC); The International Military Tribunal for Germany (Yale Law School: The Avalon Project); and The Nuremburg Trial (American Experience, 2006) [55 minutes].
United Nations -- The League of Nations and the United Nations (BBC).
THEME: The struggle to redefine humanity in terms of rights and the arts after World War II (1945-89).
COLD WAR -- The Western Tradition, 49: The Cold War and 50: Europe and the Third World. Optional: The Cold War (Mapping History); Cold War in Europe: 1945-1990 (Wadsworth Modules); Division of Berlin, 1945 and Rivalry in Europe, 1949 (McDougal Littell); New Nations, 1946-1991 (McDougal Littell: Animated History); Communism: Development and Duration, 1917-2000 animated map; NATO and Warsaw Pact Countries (Norton iMaps); and One Giant Leap for Dogkind: Laika in space and art (Espionart).
The Marshall Plan -- The Marshall Plan (Holt, Rinehart & Winston). Optional: The Marshall Plan: Reconstructing Capitalist Europe, 1945-1951 (Wadsworth Modules) and For European Recovery: The Fiftieth Anniversary of the Marshall Plan (Library of Congress).
U.N. Declaration of Human Rights (1949) -- A clever arrangement (National Geographic); Founders of the United Nations (1945); and AD Classics (ArchDaily). Optional: United Nations Headquarters (1953, Essential Architecture).
Faulkner (1950) -- William Faulkner's Nobel Prize for Literature Speech (William Faulkner on the Web).
Korean War (1950-53) -- The Korean War (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations) and Picasso, Massacre in Korea, 1951 and tribute to the 17C Spanish master Velazquez (1957): here and here. Optional: Pablo Picasso (1881-1973): From the Spanish Civil War to Vietnam (David Hart) an Picasso’s Ps and Massacre in Korea (1951) (Simon Abrahams).
Wiesel (1986) -- Nobel Prize for Peace 1986 (Nobel Prize) and The Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity. Optional: A Biographical Overview (PBS: Elie Wiesel: First Person Singular); Wiesel, "Adolf Hitler" (The Time 100, 1998); "Never shall I forget that night" (Yad Vashem, 2002); Encountering Auschwitz (USHMM); and Elie Wiesel and Oprah Winfrey at Auschwitz (USHMM).
Study the red art objects below and least two other items (artworks or buildings):
ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM -- The Art Story; and The Origins of Abstract Expressionism and The Impact of Abstract Expressionism (Smarthistory). Optional: Abstract Expressionism and the New York School (Khan Academy) and Abstract Expressionism (ArtLex).
Jackson Pollock ('murican) -- Pollock's Painting Techniques (Smarthistory).
Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist) -- NGA and Smarthistory. Optional: The Painting Techniques of Jackson Pollock: One: Number 31, 1950 (MoMA).
Willem de Kooning ('murican)
Woman I (1950-52) -- Smarthistory.
COLOR FIELD PAINTING -- The Art Story.
Mark Rothko ('murican) -- Mark Rothko's Painting Technique (Smarthistory). Optional: Mark Rothko (NGA); Artchive; The Painting Techniques of Mark Rothko: No. 16 (Red, Brown, and Black) (MoMA); The trouble with Mark Rothko’s genius (The Times); Simon Schama's Power of Art (PBS and BBC) and episode [59 minutes]; and Rothko's Room: The Life and Work of an American Artist [46 minutes].
Barnett Newman ('murican) -- Barnett Newman's Painting Technique (Smarthistory).
NEW YORK SCHOOL -- Neo-Dada (The Art Story).
Jasper Johns ('murican)-- Art Babble.
Robert Rauschenberg ('murican) --
Bed (1955) -- Smarthistory.
Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus, 1954) -- MMOA. Optional: Private Life of a Masterpiece: Dali (BBC) [48 minutes].
The Lacemaker (after Vermeer) (1955) and The Paranoiac-Critical Study of Vermeer’s Lacemaker (1955) -- Fine Art: Vermeer’s Lacemaker copied by Salvador Dali (LaceNews); The Lacemaker (after Vermeer) (MOMA); and LaceNews; Johannes Vermeer, The Lacemaker (1669-70): WGA; and Girl with a Hoop Earring: Fun with Vermeer (ARTnews).
Rinoceronte vestido con puntillas (Rhinoceros dressed in lace, 1956) -- Dali, Cage and Rhinos (Iconic Photos); Rhino Resource Center; Durer, The Rhinoceros (1515): WGA and The British Museum; and Husvar article.
Velázquez Painting the Infanta Margarita with the Lights and Shadows of His Own Glory (1958) -- Dali Museum and The Salvador Dali Society; Velázquez, The Infanta Doña Margarita de Austria (c. 1660): WGA and Prado. Optional: “What’s new? Velázquez.” Salvador Dali and Velázquez (Gala-Salvador Dali Foundation).
The Maids of Honour (Las Meninas) (1960) – The Metamorphoses of Don José (John Coulthart); The Salvador Dali Society; and Velazquez, Las Meninas (1656-57): WGA and Smarthistory. Optional: “What’s new? Velázquez.” Salvador Dalí and Velázquez (Gala-Salvador Dali Foundation).
POP ART -- The Art Story. Optional: Pop (Khan Academy).
Richard Hamilton (British)
Just what is it that makes today's homes so different, so appealing? (1956) -- Wikipedia.
Andy Warhol ('murican) -- Optional: Art Babble; Pop Art: The Art of Popular Culture (Artyfactory); and Pop Art: Rauschenberg, Warhol, Oldenburg, and Johns (Mencher) [35.30 minutes].
Claes Oldenburg ('murican)
Floor Cake (1962) -- Smarthistory.
Roy Lichtenstein ('murican)
EARTH ART -- Smithson, Spiral Jetty, 1970 (Smarthistory). Optional: Minimalism and Earthworks (Khan Academy); Conceptual Art (The Art Story); and Learner: Art Through Time.
Louise Nevelson (Russian-'murican)
Sky Cathedral (1958) -- MOMA.
Judy Chicago ('murican) -- Feminist Art (The Art Story).
ARCHITECTURE -- New York Architecture: International Style III and Postmodernism (Essential Architecture).
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Eero Saarien -- Eero Saarinen: Shaping The Future (Great Buildings).
Gateway Arch (1963-65, St. Louis) -- AD Classics (ArchDaily).
Frank Lloyd Wright
Willis/Sears Tower (1973, Chicago) -- AD Classics (ArchDaily).
World Trade Center(1977, NYC) -- Essential Architecture.
THEME: From the Reformation to the Present, continuing questions about humanity's present and future (1989-present).
THE END OF THE WESTERN TRADITION -- The Western Tradition, 51: The Technological Revolution and 52: Toward the Future.
BERLIN (1989) -- Revolutions in Eastern Europe (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations) and 1989: The Walls Came Tumbling Down (The History Guide). Optional: Rise and Fall of the Berlin Wall [3.30 minutes]; Hans Scharoun, Berlin Philharmonic (1956-63) (ArchDaily); and The Deadly Love of the GDR (Espionart).
Käthe Kollwitz (1903 and 1993) -- Woman with Dead Child (1903), and Neue Wache (1993, Berlin): exterior and interior 1 and 2 (Berlin). Optional: Neue Wache (Traces of Evil: Remaining Nazi Sites in Germany) and Käthe Kollwitz's In Memoriam Karl Liebknecht (Smarthistory).
USSR (1991) -- Breakup of the Soviet Union, 1991 (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations). Optional: The Art of Russia, III: Smashing the Mould (BBC: Andrew Graham-Dixon) [60 minutes].
NYC (2001) -- 9/11 Attacks: 102 Minutes That Changed America and related media (History.com) and Leonard Slatkin conducts the BBC Orchestra in Barber's Adagio for Strings (1936) during "The Last Night of the Proms" in Albert Hall, London (15 September 2001) [10.30 minutes]. Optional: U2 Super Bowl 36 Halftime Performance (2002) [7 minutes] and Requiems (Alex Ross: The Rest is Noise, 2001).
Study Art, Architecture, and at least three works by at least two artists or architects:
ART -- Art in the 21st Century (Smarthistory). Optional: From the Modern to the Postmodern and beyond: Art of the Later 20th Century (Online And study Guide for Gardner's Art through the Ages: The Western Perspective). And study at least two artworks:
Christo and Jeanne-Claude (Bulgarian and Moroccan) -- Optional: Christo and Jeanne-Claude in the Vogel Collection (NGA).
Wrapped Reichstag (1995, Berlin) -- Christo and Jeanne-Claude.
Damien Hirst (British)
The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living (1991) -- Smarthistory.
Claes Oldenburg ('murican)
Ai Weiwei (Chinese)
Remembering (2009): Smarthistory.
ARCHITECTURE -- The world's 25 greatest modern buildings (CNN, 2010) and 50 Strange Buildings of the World for fun (Essential Architecture). Optional: Great modern buildings (The Guardian, 2007) and Early 21st century International / Minimalist Modernism and Interactive architecture (Essential Architecture). And study at least two buildings:
Frank O. Gehry ('murican)
Guggenheim Museum (1997, Bilbao, Spain) -- Great Buildings; Museum Website; and No. 2 (The Guardian: Great Modern Buildings, 2007). Optional: AD Classics (ArchDaily); My Architectural Moleskin; and Frank Gehry (When Art History Goes BAD).
Daniel Libeskind ('murican) -- Optional: Studio Daniel Libeskind and Daniel Libeskind's 17 words of architectural inspiration (TED) [19 minutes].
One World Trade Center (2003-14, NYC) -- The World Trade Center: A 21st-Century Renaissance of New York (World Trade Center).
I. M. Pei (Chinese American) -- Happy 96th Birthday I. M. Pei: featuring some of his greatest works (ArchDaily, 2013).
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