MODERN WESTERN WORLD, II: Revolutions
II: Nationalism and Imperialism
THEME: The foundation of modern nation-states in Germany and Italy, and European global expansion (19C).
NATIONALISM -- The Western Tradition, 44: The Age of the Nation States; Major European Language Groups and Languages of Central and Eastern Europe (Norton iMaps); and Unification of Italy and Germany (McGraw-Hill: Maps in Motion). Optional: Italian Unification and German Unification, 1815-1871 (Norton iMaps); Nation Building, 1848-1870: Italy, Germany and Comparative Examples (Wadsworth: History Unbound); Nationalism and Revolution and Land of Our Fathers [58 minutes each] (Music in Time); European Language Groups, c. 1850 and Europe, 1871 (McGraw-Hill). . And study at least one map from each topic:
ITALY -- Unification of Italy: Context and Interactive Module (Wadsworth Modules) and Unification of Italy (Norton iMaps). Optional: Unification of Italy (Pearson Active Maps); Unification of Italy (McGraw-Hill); and Italian satirical map of Europe, 1870 (imgur). And study at least item below:
Music: Giuseppe Verdi, Nabucco: "Va, pensiero" ("Fly, Thought," 1842) -- Verdi's "theme music" for Italian unification, skipping the video (NPR) and performance [5 minutes]. Optional: The Top 10 Politically-Charged Moments in Verdi's Operas (WQXR: Operavore).
GERMANY -- Unification of Germany: Context and Interactive Mode (Wadsworth Modules) and Toward the Unification of Germany (Norton iMaps). Optional: Forging an Empire: Bismarckian Germany (1866-1890) (GHDI); The Road to National Unification (Scheck); German Unification, Part I: The Failure of Liberal Nationalism [9 minutes] and Part II: Blood and Iron [15 minutes] (Tom Richey); The German Question, 1815-1871 and Unification of Germany (McGraw-Hill); The Unification of Germany, 1815-1871 (Pearson); and The Unification of Germany (Wadsworth). And study at least one other item:
Troops Parade Down the Champs Élysée in Paris (01 March 1871).
Troops Parade through the Brandenburg Gate (16 June 1871).
Music: Richard Wagner
Ride of the Valkyries (1870): information (Wikipedia); performance [5 minutes] and Francis Ford Coppolo's Apocalypse Now [6 minutes] (1979); and Pierre Auguste Renoir, Richard Wagner (1882). Optional: Synopsis (Metropolitan Opera); Wagner: A Concise Biography [36 minutes] (Academy Media); and What's Opera, Doc? [7 minutes].
Neuschwanstein (1880) -- Essential Architecture and Dream and Machine, segment 9 [6 minutes] (Graham-Dixon: Art of Germany, 2). Optional: World Site Guides [9 minutes] and Pleasure: sections 9-14 [12 minutes] (BBC: Cruickshank’s Adventures in Architecture).
The Reichstag (1884, Berlin) -- Essential Architecture.
IMPERIALISM -- 19C Imperialism (Crash Course World History and transcript); The British Empire, Trading Routes and Construction (The Map as History); and European Empires in 1900 (Norton iMaps). Optional: The Middle East at the Beginning of the 20th Century (The Map as History); European Imperialism 1880-1900: Theory, Practice, Discourse and Empire: Politics, Conquest, and Dissolution (1500-2000) (Wadsworth: World History Unbound); Industrialization and Its Impact, 1800-1914, European International Investment, 1914, and Share of World Manufacturing Output 1900, and Patterns of Imperialism and Colonialism: Continuity and Change (OUP); and Imperialism and Colonialism, 1870-1914 and Nineteenth-century Migration (Norton iMaps).
THEME: Emerging artistic movements challenge political capitalism (19C).
ART -- Becoming Modern (Khan Academy). Optional: The Art of the Western World, 7: A Fresh View -- Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, Part I.
And study the main article and at least one painting for each "ism" below:
REALISM -- A beginner's guide to Realism (Khan Academy). Optional: Realism in France 19th Century, Part 1: Daumier and Courbet [28 minutes] (Mencher).
Rosa Bonheur (French)
Gustave Courbet (French)
Édouard Manet (French)
Le déjeuner sur l'herbe (1863) -- WGA; Khan Academy; and Max Ernst, Le Déjeuner sur l'Herbre parody (1944). Optional: Artble; Realism in France in the 19th Century, Part 2: Manet [17 minutes] (Mencher); Manet and Modernité and Manet and the Impressionists (Art History Unstuffed); and Manet [24 minutes] (Marlow).
Honoré Daumier (French)
The Third-Class Carriage (1864) -- WGA and Artble. Optional: Honoré Daumier (1808-1879): Satirist of French and Prussian Militarism (Hart).
Jean-Francois Millet (French)
IMPRESSIONISM -- How the Impressionists Got Their Name (Khan Academy). Optional: The Art Story; Impressionism: Color in Art (Artyfactory); The First Impressionist Exhibition, 1874 (Artchive); Impressionism: A Circle of Friends (WetCanvas); and Waldemar Januszczak: The Impressionists [6 minutes] (BBC: Your Paintings).
Gustave Caillebotte (French)
Paris Street; Rainy Day (1877) -- Art Institute of Chicago; Khan Academy; and WGA. Optional: The Annotated: Paris Street; Rainy Day (Chicago Magazine) and Gustave Caillebotte: Impressions of a Changing Paris (NPR).
Claude Monet (French)
Berthe Morisot (French)
The Mother and Sister of the Artist (c. 1869-70) -- Khan Academy.
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French)
POST-IMPRESSIONISM -- Post-Impressionism (The Art Story). Optional: Post Impressionism: The Roots of Modern Art (Artyfactory).
Paul Cézanne (French)
Auguste Rodin (French)
Vincent van Gogh (Dutch)
Starry Night (1888) -- Khan Academy; Musée d'Orsay; and The unexpected math behind Van Gogh's "Starry Night" [5 minutes] (TED-Ed). Optional: WGA; Artble; Vincent van Gogh [26 minutes] (Mencher); Great Artists: Van Gogh [24 minutes] and The Impressionists: Van Gogh [30 minutes] (Marlow); Daydreams and Nightmares: High Art of the Low Countries, segments 1-5 (BBC: Graham-Dixon); and Van Gogh [51 minutes] (BBC: Power of Art).
Wheat Field with Crows (1889) -- WGA and Wheat Field with Crows (Schama's Power of Art). Optional: Van Gogh: The Paintings: Wheat Field (a.k.a., Wheat Field with Crows) and Robert Colescott, Auvers-sur-Oise (Crow in the Wheat Field) (1981).
MUSIC: Impressionist -- Study at least one musical piece:
Erik Satie (French)
Claude Debussy (French)
Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune (1894) -- information (Wikipedia) and performance [13 minutes] (Leopold Stokowski and the London Symphony Orchestra). Optional: Debussy's Paris: Art, Music, & Sounds of the City (Smith College Museum of Art); and Listening Guide: Debussy's Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune (Philharmonia Orchestra).
La Mer (1903-05) -- Waves of Sound: Debussy's La Mer (NPR: Essential Classics) and performance [24 minutes]. Optional: Documentary and Concert [28 minutes each] (Euro Arts Music: Discovering Masterpieces of Classical Music).
MODERNISM, I: Moscow, 1: Tolstoy
THEME: Russian artists challenge Western European Isms (19C).
RUSSIA -- Age of Industry: sections 7-9 [7 minutes] (BBC: Marr's History of the World) and Russian Expansion (1801-1914) (Norton). Optional: The Western Tradition, 45: A New Public and 46: Fin de Siècle; Age of Industry: sections 7-9 [7 minutes] (BBC: Marr's History of the World); and The Mighty Fistful [60 minutes] (Music in Time).
TOLSTOY -- Leo Tolstoy [10 minutes] (The School of Life, with optional article). Optional: Tolstoy (Famous Authors); Trouble with Tolstoy [60 minutes]; Images of Tolstoy (The Voice of Russia's Global Discussion); Tolstoy (BBC: In Our Time); Leo Tolstoy at Yasnaya Polyana [2 minutes]; and The Last Station (2009): review (Roger Ebert).
The Death of Ivan Ilyich -- The Big Read for The Death of Ivan Ilyich: Promo [6 minutes] and Reader's Guide (NEA). Optional: Book Of A Lifetime: The Death of Ivan Ilyich, By Leo Tolstoy (The Independent); Structure and themes [14 minutes] (John Krapp); and A brief survey of the short story part 25: Leo Tolstoy (The Guardian).
DOSTOEVSKY -- The Brothers Karamazov (Thug Notes); Vasily Perov, Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1872); Fyodor Dostoyevsky - Peter Ustinov (Peter Ustinov's Russia, 1986) [7 minutes]; and Monty Python: The Spanish Inquisition [9 minutes]. Optional: Dostoevsky (Books and Writers); The Dark Knight / The Grand Inquisitor and Notes from Underground (Thug Notes); The Soviet film of The Brothers Karamazov (1969) curiously substitutes another story for Dostoevsky's original "The Grand Inquisitor" scene [8 minutes]; The Grand Inquisitor: a clever short story drawing loosely on Dostoevsky's parable [22 minutes]; The Existentialist Frame of Mind (The History Guide); and The 7 Best Movies Influenced By Fyodor Dostoyevsky (Taste of Cinema).
ART: Ilya Repin -- An Introduction to the Peredvizhniki (The Wanderers) (Khan Academy) and Art of Russia, II: Roads to Revolution, segments 11-14 [10 minutes] (BBC: Graham-Dixon).
MUSIC -- Study at least one of these musical works:
Pytor Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian)
Piano Concerto No. 1 (1875) -- Essential Classics (NPR). Optional: Documentary [30 minutes] and Concert [54 minutes] (Euro Arts Music: Discovering Masterpieces of Classical Music) and Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky: A Concise Biography [37 minutes] (Academy Media).
Modest Mussorgsky -- Ilya Repin, Modest Mussorgsky (1881).
Pictures at an Exhibition (1874), orchestrated by Maurice Ravel (1922) -- information (Good Music Guide) and performance: "Promenade" (Alan Gampel) [to minute 1.30 of the 20-minute session for the opening movement]. Optional: full performances: London Philharmonia Orchestra (1964) [33 minutes] and Emerson, Lake, and Palmer's live performance (1971): visual ("Promenade" and "The Gnome") and recording [44 minutes].
II: Vienna and Paris
THEME: New ways of understanding humanity through philosophy and the arts at the turn of the century (1900).
NIETZSCHE (German) -- Nietzsche, Freud and the Thrust Toward Modernism, Part 1 and Part 2 (The History Place); Friedrich Nietzsche [7 minutes] (The School of Life); and Friedrich Nietzsche (Three Minute Philosophy). Optional: The Revolt Against the Western Intellectual Tradition: Friedrich Nietzsche and the Birth of Modernism (The History Guide) and Nietzsche: Beyond Good and Evil [50 minutes] (BBC).
FREUD (Austrian) -- Sigmund Freud: video [7 minutes] and text (The School of Life). Optional: Sigmund Freud: Exploring the Unconscious [25 minutes]; Sigmund Freud (serious fun) [30 minutes] (BBC: Mark Steel); Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy; Sigmund Freud Museum, Vienna; The full Interpretation of Dreams in English translation (1911); Dream Interpretation Online Course [2 minutes]; City of Dreams (Vienna 1900-1935): Sigmund Freud [4 minutes] (Philharmonia Orchestra); Vienna 1908 [52 minutes] (BBC); Young Doctor Freud, Part 1: Struggling with the Demon [59 minutes] and 2: Opening the Eyes [54 minutes] (PBS): and 1913: When Hitler, Trotsky, Tito, Freud and Stalin all lived in the same place (BBC).
STRAVNISKY -- Pablo Picasso, Igor Stravinsky (1920); Listening Guide: Stravinsky's Rite of Spring [9 minutes] (Philharmonia Orchestra); and The Rite of Spring: Joffrey Ballet (1987) [30 minutes]. Optional: Stravinsky: A Concise Biography [40 minutes] (Academy Media); Stravinsky's Rite of Spring [55 minutes] (PBS: Keeping Score); Essential Classics (NPR); Stravinsky (ArtsAlive); Documentary [29 minutes] and concert [35 minutes] (Euro Arts Music: Discovering Masterpieces of Classical Music); Milestones of the Millennium: The Rite of Spring (NPR); Walt Disney, Fantasia: Part 1: Genesis (1942): Disney's animated interpretation of The Rite of Spring [7 minutes], with Part 2: Evolution [9 minutes] and Part 3: Extinction [5 minutes]; and Le Sacre du Sacre, a composition student in The Netherlands breaks and bends a few musical rules, beginning with Stravinsky [4 minutes].
And study at least three paintings in any two movements:
SYMBOLISM: Gustav Klimt (Austrian)
SURREALISM -- Introduction to Surrealism (Khan Academy).
Edvard Munch (Norwegian)
Rene Magritte (French)
Joan Miró (Catalan)
Birth of the World (1925) -- MoMA.
Alberto Giacometti (Swiss)
Antoni Gaudí (Barcelonan), Sagrada Família Basilica (1882-sometime) -- Works of Antoni Gaudí: introductory paragraph and video [3 minutes] (UNESCO World Heritage Sites) and here; Khan Academy. Optional: AD Classics (ArchDaily); Digital Imaging Project; Sacred Destinations; How Gaudi's finished Sagrada Família cathedral in Barcelona will look (The Telegraph); and The Casa Mila - Antonio Gaudi [27 minutes] (Achievements in Modern Architecture).
Henri Matisse (French), Bonheur de Vivre (1905-06) -- Barnes Foundation and Khan Academy. Optional: Henri Matisse: video [5 minutes] and text (The School of Life); The Art Story; A Beginner's Guide to Fauvism (Khan Academy); and Artyfactory.
Pablo Picasso (Spanish), Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) -- PBS and Khan Academy. Optional: The top 10 artworks of the 20th century (The Guardian); Nothing like It (Thomas Hoving); The Mystical North: Spanish Art from the 19th Century to the Present, segments 7-8 (BBC: Graham-Dixon); Picasso (BBC: The Power of Art); and Robert Colescott, Les Demoiselles d'Alabama (1985).
Marcel Duchamp (French-'murican)
Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 (1912) -- Philadelphia of Art and 'Armory Show' That Shocked America In 1913, Celebrates 100 (NPR, 2013).
Fountain (1917/1964) -- Tate; Khan Academy; and The top 10 artworks of the 20th century (The Guardian). Optional: Duchamp's Fountain: The practical joke that launched an artistic revolution (The Telegraph) and Ready Mades (DADA Companion).
THE GREAT WAR, I: The Somme
THEME: The First War to End All Wars redefines realities (1914-18).
WORLD WAR I -- Europe Plunges into War (The Map as History); World War I: the Global Theater, World War I: the European and Middle Eastern Theaters, and Outcomes of World War I in Europe, North Africa, and Some of the Middle East (Norton iMaps); and World War I Troop Strength and Casualties (Holt, Rinehart and Winston). Optional: The Western Tradition, 47: The First World War and the Rise of Fascism [minute 00-7.45]; The Origins of World War I (Wadsworth Modules); Beginning of World War I (Khan Academy); If WWI were a bar fight; World War One (Modern World History: Interactive Textbook); Militarism and Alliances in Europe, 1914 (McGraw-Hill: Maps in Motion); World War I: Eastern and Western Europe (Norton iMaps); Causes of World War I [17 minutes] and Military Technologies of the Second Industrial Revolution (Civil War and WWI Compared) [5 minutes] (Tom Richey); and 1917: Did the War Cause a Revolution? (Digital History Reader).
WESTERN FRONT -- The Western Front (McGraw-Hill: Maps in Motion). Optional: Western and Eastern fronts of World War I and Other fronts of World War I (Khan Academy); The First World War, World War I in Europe, 1914-1918, The Western Front, 1914-1918, WWI: Western Front, The Western Front, and Territorial Gains, 1914-19 (McGraw-Hill); U.S. Battles, 1918 (McGraw-Hill: Maps in Motion); European Alliances On The Eve Of The First World War, The Balkans, 1878-1914, The Schlieffen Plan, The Great War, 1914–1916, and The Great War, 1917-1918 (Norton iMaps); America in World War I: The Western Front, 1918 and Influenza Epidemic (McGraw-Hill: Interactive Maps); and All Quiet on the Western Front: Thug Notes and Lessons of the Great War: All Quiet on the Western Front (Thomson Learning Center); and Death on the eve of Armistice (The Open University: Michael Palin).
THE SOMME (1916) -- The Battle of the Somme (PBS), and Battle of the Somme: 1 July-13 November 1916 and Animated Map: Battle of the Somme (BBC). Optional: The Somme [29 minutes] (War Walks: Richard Holmes); The Somme [50 minutes] (History Channel); Battle of the Somme (BBC History Trail); The Human Face of War, and World War I soldier wills digitised for online archive (BBC); Why was the Battle of the Somme film bigger than Star Wars? (BBC: iWonder); Battle of the Somme: Battlefield, Film, Photographs, and Texts (including a lengthy excerpt from Robert Graves' Goodbye to All That); Thiepval War Memorial Virtual Tour (BBC); The Battle of the Somme (CWGC); and Ypres and the Somme Today (Echoes of War).
Monument -- Sir Edwin Lutyens: Monument to the Missing of the Battle of the Somme, Thiepval, France, 1932 (A Digital Archive of Architecture). Optional: Thiepval Memorial (Australians on the Western Front, 1914-1918) and Thiepval War Memorial Virtual Tour (BBC).
ART -- Study the red works and at least one other:
Otto Dix (German)
Trench Warfare -- Otto Dix (1891-1969): Life and Death in the Trenches (Hart) and Goya and Dix's Scenes of Execution, Disasters of War (c. 1810-15) (Abrahams).
Triptychon Der Krieg (War Triptych) (1929-32) -- Art of the First World War; SKD Museum exhibit; and Unpacking a painting (Wordpress: Reflections). Optional: Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden; Dream and Machine, segment 12 [3 minutes] (Graham-Dixon: Art of Germany, 2); and The Art of War: Otto Dix’s Der Krieg [War] cycle 1924 (National Gallery of Australia).
Albin Egger-Lienz (Austrian)
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German)
Käthe Kollwitz (German)
Paul Nash (British)
John Singer Sargent ('murican)
Stanley Spencer (British)
Sandham Memorial Chapel (1926-32, Burghclere, Hampshire, England) -- Jon Snow visits 'Britain's Sistine Chapel' [6 minutes] (Channel 4 News); Art of the First World War; and The Open University. Optional: The Memorial Chapel, Sandham by Stanley Spencer [2 minutes]; Apollo Magazine; Wikipedia; National Trust and National Trust Collections; Paintings at National Trust, Sandham Memorial Chapel (BBC); and Art from Different Fronts of World War One (BBC).
THEME: Totalitarian regimes in Russia and Italy emerge from World War I (1917-41).
USSR -- Art of Russia, III: Smashing the Mold, segments 1-6 [22 minutes] (BBC: Graham-Dixon); War and Revolution in Russia 1914-1921 (BBC); "A New World Arisen": Russia's Revolutions, 1900-1924: Setting, Power on Paper, and Perspectives (Wadsworth: History Unbound); and The Soviet Union (Norton iMaps). Optional: Lectures on Twentieth Century Europe, 5-7 (The History Guide); Seventeen Moments in Soviet History (MSU); and Russia in the 20th Century (Mapping History). And study at least two topics:
Collectivization -- Collectivization (Seventeen Moments in Soviet History).
Stalinist Cult of Personality -- Cult of Personality (Seventeen Moments in Soviet History).
Children -- Childhood under Stalin (Seventeen Moments in Soviet History).
The Great Terror (1936) -- The Great Terror (Seventeen Moments in Soviet History).
Stakhanovite (1935-36) -- Year of the Stakhanovite (Seventeen Moments in Soviet History).
ART -- Study at least one painting, sculpture, or building:
Aleksandr Rodchenko, Books! (1924) -- Art Through Time.
Suprematist Composition: White on White (1918) -- Art & Context: Monet's Cliff Walk at Pourville (1882) and Malevich's White on White (1918) (Khan Academy).
Wassily Kandinsky -- Kandinsky: Compositions (Mark Harden). Optional: Wassily Kandinsky: Invisible Shapes [33 minutes] (Arte) and Suprematist tea cups painted by Malevich's students (Early Twenty-Century Russian Drama).
Socialist Realism -- Socialist Realism (Seventeen Moments in Soviet History). Optional: Neorealism and Socialist Realism (Early Twenty-Century Russian Drama) and Socialist Realism: Lenin and Stalin (Page 1) and beyond (Page 2) (Art History). Optional: Socialist realism: The History of Russian art in 15 paintings. PART I (The Voice of Russia); Soviet Posters (International Institute of Social History); Socialist Realism (Virtual Museum of Political Art); and 1934: Socialist Realism (Seventeen Moments in Soviet History).
Vladimir Tatlin, Tower: Monument to the Third International (1919-20 unfinished) -- Wikipedia and photograph of a model (November 1920, Petrograd); and Tatlin's Tower: The Monument to the Future that Never Was (World History Connected).
Varvara Stepanova,The Results of the First Five-Year Plan (1932) -- Khan Academy.
THEME: Nazi Germany propels the world into war (1930).
GERMANY -- Europe after World War I (The Map as History); The Age of Totalitarianism: Stalin and Hitler: study Hitler (The History Guide); and The Swastika: Catawba College's annual. Optional: Europe After World War I (McGraw-Hill: Maps in Motion); Rise of Hitler and the Nazis and Rise of Mussolini and Fascism (Khan Academy); Adolf Hitler: Man and monster (BBC iWonder); Western Tradition, 47: The First World War and the Rise of Fascism [begin at minute 7.45]; The Political Revolution of the 1930s (Mapping History); The Age of Anxiety: Europe in the 1920s, Part 1 and Part 2 (The History Guide); and Top Ten Nazi Architecture and Fascist Stripped Classical (German) (Essential Architecture).
PROPAGANDA -- The Power of Nazi Propaganda [6 minutes] (on the USHMM exhibit, State of Deception: The Power of Nazi Propaganda) and May 10, 1933, The Burning of Books [3 minutes] (USHMM). Optional: Walt Disney, The Story of One of "Hitler's Children" as Adopted from Education for Death (1943) [10 minutes].
Speech -- Hitler practices his speech (1927) (Iconic Photos); Hitler's speech [11 minutes] at the Nazi Party Conference in Nuremburg, captured by Leni Riefenstahl's film Triumph of the Will (1934); and Charlie Chaplin mocks Adolf Hitler: Hynkel speech [5 minutes]; and Roger Ebert's review of Triumph of the Will.
DEGENERATE ART -- Art in Nazi Germany and House of German Art and the Entartete Kunst exhibition [8 minutes] (Khan Academy). Optional: Degenerate art: Why Hitler hated modernism (BBC); In the Shadow of Hitler, segments 2-3 and 8-10 [9 minutes] (Graham-Dixon: Art of Germany, 3); and Architecture in the Early 20th Century, Modernism, Bauhaus, DeStijl and International Style [27 minutes] (Mencher). And study at least one degenerate building or artwork:
Le Corbusier (French), Villa Savoye (1929, Poissy-sur-Seine, France) -- Khan Academy and AD Classics (ArchDaily). Optional: Essential Architecture; Digital Imaging Project; Great Buildings; Columbia U.; and Art Through Time (Annenberg Learner).
Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity)
Otto Dix (German)
De Stijl (The Style)
Piet Mondrian (Dutch), Composition No. II, with Red and Blue (1929) -- MoMA and Khan Academy. Optional: Daydreams and Nightmares: High Art of the Low Countries, segments 6-8 (BBC: Graham-Dixon) and In Mondrian’s Studio [50 minutes] (Arte).
Joan Miró (Spanish), Woman Haunted by the Passage of the Bird-Dragonfly Omen of Bad News (1938) and information (Toledo Museum of Art).
RUSHING TOWARD WORLD WAR II -- Study at least one map: German and Italian Expansion, 1936-1939 (Norton iMaps); Changes in Europe, 1919, Politics in Europe, 1930s, German and Italian Expansion, 1935-1939, Hitler's Actions in Europe 1936-1939, and The Causes of World War II in Europe, 1935-1939 (McGraw-Hill: Maps in Motion); Territorial Settlements 1919-26 and The League of Nations (McGraw-Hill); and German gains, 1936-1938 and Partition of Czechoslovakia, 1938-1939 (USHMM).
SPANISH CIVIL WAR (1936-39) -- The Spanish Civil War (Norton iMaps) and Salvador Dali, Soft Construction with Boiled Beans (Premonition of Civil War) (1936).
GUERNICA (1937) -- Picasso's Guernica and essay (Khan Academy); and Guernica (2002): Marcelo Ricardo Ortiz's clever 3D animation [music: Duran Duran (The Chauffer, 1983) and images: Vincent van Gogh (Bedroom in Arles, 1888), Salvador Dali (The Persistence of Memory, 1931), M. C. Escher (Relativity, 1953), and Picasso (Guernica)]. Optional: Guernica: Testimony of War (PBS); The Legacy of Guernica (BBC); War and Peace in the Art of Pablo Picasso: "Guernica" (1937) and Pablo Picasso (1881-1973): From the Spanish Civil War to Vietnam (Hart); Artyfactory; The Mystical North: Spanish Art from the 19th Century to the Present, segments 12-13 (BBC: Graham-Dixon); Totalitarian Art; and Keiskamma Guernica (2010).
Samuel Barber ('murican), Adagio for Strings (1936) [6 minutes] and The Impact of Barber's Adagio for Strings (NPR): read the main article and What Makes It Great: Barber's Adagio (read and listen from the "More Barber Stories" section) NPR).
THEME: The Second War to End All Wars in Europe (1939-45).
WORLD WAR II -- World War II (Crash Course World History and transcript); World War Two: History's most savage and devastating war (BBC iWonder); and World War Two: Summary Outline of Key Events (BBC). Optional: World War II: In Depth and Timeline (USHMM); Timeline of World War II (PBS: The War); Hitler and World War Two (The History Guide); The Second World War: five maps and Conflicts in WWII (Norton, requires Google Earth); and The Western Heritage, 48: The Second World War.
EUROPE -- World War II in Europe and North Africa, 1939-1941 and The War in Europe and North Africa, 1942-1945 (McGraw-Hill: Maps in Motion); and The Second World War in Europe (Norton iMaps). Optional: World War II in Europe: Summary and Timeline (USHMM); World War II: the European Theater (Norton iMaps); World War II in Europe and North Africa and Allied Advances and Collapse of German Power (Wadsworth); and Dark Charisma of Hitler, Part 2 and Part 3 (BBC).
FRANCE, I (10 May-22 June 1940) -- Animated Map: The Fall of France (Dunkirk) and The Fall of France (BBC). Optional: German Invasion of Western Europe, May 1940, German invasion of western Europe, 1940, German conquests in Europe, 1939-1942 map, and Occupation of the southern zone, November 1942 (USHMM); June 23, 1940 Paris (The Hitler Pages: Historical Hitler Sites).
BRITAIN (1939-45) -- Battle of Britain and The Blitz (BBC) and St. Paul's Cathedral during the Blitz: images only (Daily Mail). Optional: The Battle of Britain (BBC); The Bombers and the Bombed: Coventry, England (1940) and Lübeck, Germany (1942) (BBC: WW2 Movies); The Battle of Britain (History Animated); Balham in the Blitz and now – interactive: click on the image to change (14 October 1940) (The Guardian); and The Anglo-American raids on Hamburg during the Second World War (1943) (The Guardian).
NORTH AFRICA (13 September 1940-13 May 1943) -- Animated Map: The North African Campaign (BBC). Optional: Southern Europe and North Africa Campaign Interactive Map (EDSITEment!); North African Campaigns, 1942-1945 (Pearson); North Africa (History Animated); The Battle of El Alamein, Animated Map: The Battle of El Alamein, Allied Landings in French North Africa and Second Battle of El Alamein (BBC); Focus on: Kasserine Pass (The National WWII Museum, New Orleans); and Poet Keith Douglas on El Alamein (The Guardian)
ITALY (10 July 1943-02 May 1945) -- Animated Map: The Italian Campaign (BBC). Optional: Defeat of Nazi Germany, 1942-1945 and Italy (USHMM); The 'D-Day Dodgers', Allied Landings in Sicily, Allied Landings in Italy, Battle of Monte Cassino and World War Two: The Battle of Monte Cassino (BBC); German-occupied areas of Italy, 1943, Major Nazi camps in Occupied Italy, 1943-1944, Italy, camps for displaced persons, and Deportations from Italy, 1943-1945 (USHMM); The Man Who Never Was and Jean Leslie (1923-2010); Focus on: Stalemate at Anzio (The National WWII Museum, New Orleans); The Battles of Cassino, 1944 (Commonwealth War Graves Commission: Information Leaflets); and Roger Waters pens poem for veteran who found father's place of death (Anzio, 1944) (The Guardian).
FRANCE, II: Normandy (06 June 1944) -- Operation Overlord: D-Day to Paris and Animated Map: Operation Overlord, and D-Day: How was the biggest ever seaborne invasion launched? (BBC); and North Europe Campaign Interactive Map (EDSITEment!). Optional: Special Section: D-Day and Operation Overlord (BBC); D-Day (Pearson: Events that changed the world); Encyclopedia Britannica's Guide to Normandy 1944; The Normandy Landings: text and animated map (The War Times Journal); D-Day (Guardian); D-Day (McGraw-Hill: Beyond the Textbook); The Allies Land on D-Day (Pearson: History Interactive); The 5 Phases of D-Day Explained: Infographic and 9,000 Fallen Soldiers Etched onto the Normandy Beaches in this Amazing Artwork (Made from History); and Saving Private Ryan (1998): Parts 1, 2, and 3.
BERLIN (June 1944-May 1945) -- The Battle for Berlin in World War Two and World War Two: How the Allies Won (BBC); and Raising Flag Over the Reichstag and Three Flags of Khaldei (Iconic Photos). Optional: Ian Kershaw, "Europe's Second Thirty Years War," History Today, 55/9 (2005); Victory in Europe and Japan (BBC) and End of the War in the Main-Spessart Region (Third Reich in Ruins); Battle off the Bulge: shorter and longer versions (BBC) and USHMM; Why Hitler's grand plan during the second world war collapsed (The Guardian); Köln and Pariser Platz an Reichstag (Traces of Evil: Remaining Nazi Sites in Germany); Nuremberg and Berlin (Totalitarian Art: Werckmeister); and Battle of Berlin: Part 2 and Raising Flag Over the Reichstag, When Hitler Met His End, and The End of the Thousand-Year Reich (Iconic Photos).
THEME: The Second War to End All Wars in Asia and the Pacific (1935-45).
WORLD WAR II: Asia and the Pacific -- World War II: Pacific, 1939-1945 (The National Archives) [6 minutes]; World War II in the Pacific and Pacific Basin, Japanese expansion (USHMM); and World War II: the Pacific Theater (Norton iMaps or here). Optional: World War II in the Pacific (Houghton Mifflin); World War II Pacific Animated Maps (History Animated); World War Two: The Pacific Theater (Mapping History); War in the Pacific, 1936-45 and World War II in Asia and the Pacific, 1941-1945 (McGraw-Hill: Maps in Motion); and Ken Burns' The War (PBS, 2007), with full episodes at NCLive. And study the red topics and at least three others:
SINGAPORE (8 December 1941-15 February 1942) -- Wikipedia: first two paragraphs; The Battle for Malaya (History Animated); and Jack Sharpe (Iconic Photos). Optional: Fall Singapore and Malaya (BBC) and Fall of Singapore (Australia's War 1939-1945). Optional: The Surrender of Singapore (15 February 1942) (Iconic Photos); "I Will Walk Out On My Own Two Feet" (CM War Stories, 2006); Horror of the fall recalled in POW homage (The Guardian, 2002); and Kranji War Cemetery and the Singapore Memorials (Commonwealth War Graves Commission: Information Leaflets); and Doolittle Raid (18 April 1942): EyeWitness to History: introduction, History Animated, and Naval History & Heritage.
BURMA -- The Burma Campaign, The Burma Campaign 1941-1945, and Animated Map: The Burma Campaign (BBC). Optional: Maps of the China-Burma-India Theater of World War II and Defence of Imphal and Kohima (BBC); Revealed: The terrible suffering and extraordinary courage of British WW2 soldiers fighting the Japanese in the Burmese jungle (Mail Online); and The Burma-Siam Railway and Its Cemeteries (Commonwealth War Graves Commission: Information Leaflets).
Kon Ichikawa, The Burmese Harp (1956) -- Criterion Collection, with a trailer [4 minutes] and essay. Optional: TCM; Harp of Burma (Ronald P. Loftus); and Kon Ichikawa’s The Burmese Harp: A Search for Redemption (The culture trip).
MIDWAY (03-07 June 1942) -- World War II in the Pacific (Houghton Mifflin); The Battle of Midway, 1942 (McGraw-Hill: Maps in Motion); The Battle of Midway (BBC); and Island-Hopping in the Pacific, 1942-1945 (McGraw-Hill: Maps in Motion). Optional: Battle of Midway: The Japanese Attack and The American Counterattack (US Navy History) [9 minutes]; History Animated; and Catawba Alumnus Pilot of Famous Flying Dud.
GUADALCANAL (August 1942-February 1943) -- History Animated. Optional: Focus on: Guadalcanal (The National WWII Museum, New Orleans); Guadalcanal Campaign (Naval History & Heritage); First Offensive: The Marine Campaign For Guadalcanal (Marines in World War II Commemorative Series); and Hell in the Pacific: The rare pictures that reveal reality of the Battle of Guadalcanal (Mail Online).
Leyte Gulf (October 1944) -- Timeline: The War in the Pacific, 1944-1945 and Major Pacific Battles (PBS: American Experience: Victory in the Pacific); WWII: The Battle for Leyte (PBS: American Experience: MacArthur); and History Animated.
IWO JIMA (February-March 1945) -- History Animated; The First Flag on Iwo Jima (Iconic Photos); and Japan: No Surrender in World War Two (BBC). Optional: Japan's Plan (PBS: American Experience: Victory in the Pacific).
OKINAWA (April-June 1945) -- History Animated. Optional: Profile: Japan's Okinawa (BBC); Ken Burn's The War, Episode 7: A World Without War -- March 1945-September 1945 (PBS) [minutes 0.00.00-0.27.15 and 0.54.20-1.05.17]; and Civilians on Okinawa (PBS: American Experience: Victory in the Pacific).
HIROSHIMA and NAGASAKI (06 and 09 August 1945) -- Age of Extremes: section 8 [8 minutes] (BBC: Marr's History of the World); Nuclear Power: The End of the War Against Japan (BBC); and Keisuke Yamamoto, Hiroshima (1948). Optional: Hiroshima remembers atomic bomb (BBC).
VJ -- The Costs of War (PBS: American Experience: Victory in the Pacific); VJ Day (BBC); and VJ Day Kiss (Iconic Photos).
THE WORLD AT WAR -- World War II, A War for Resources (Crash Course World History).
VI: Culture Wars
THEME: Casualties of the Second War to End All Wars, Part I: Culture (1933-45).
STOLEN ART -- The Rape of Europa trailer [3 minutes] and The Nazi Plundering of Europe [44 minutes] (BBC). Optional: Nazi Art Theft (National Geographic); Louvre: Le Louvre pendant la guerre (Liberation Culture), The Louvre During the War (Le Blog), and How the French Hid the Louvre’s Masterpieces During WWII (Twisted Sifter); The Rape of Europa Website (PBS); and In the Shadow of Hitler, segment 11 [4 minutes] (Graham-Dixon: Art of Germany, 3).
MONUMENTS MEN (Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives Program, 1943-46) -- The WWII soldiers who saved art [3 minutes] (BBC); The Monuments Men and Women [5 minutes]; map (Harvard Magazine); and The Monuments Men film with trailer (2014). Optional: A. S. Pennoyer and the Monuments Men (Princeton U.); Monumental Mission (Smithsonian); Monuments Men: Tracking looted treasures (DW); and Henry Ettlinger: Biography and video (Monuments Men Foundation for the Preservation of Art), Meet the Jersey guy who helped liberate art from Nazi Germany (NJ.com, 2010), and In Rockaway Township, Ettlinger shares his story of Monuments Men (NorthJersey.com).
ART WORKS and BUILDINGS (arranged chronologically) -- Study the red items and at least two others (art work and/or buildings):
Chartres Cathedral (12C-13C) -- "Is Art Worth a Life?" [1 minute] (Monuments Men Foundation).
Strasbourg Cathedral: stained glass (13C) -- saved and restored. Optional: The Monuments Men: Harry Ettlinger describes finding the stained glass windows of Strasbourg Cathedral in a salt mine (ARCA).
Monte Cassino (14C, Italy): monastery destroyed by Allies (February 1944) -- American B17 flying over the smoking abbey, destruction, more destruction, Battle of Monte Cassino (BBC), Sacred Destinations; and Paradoxplace.
Jan van Eyck
Ghent Altarpiece (1432, Ghent Cathedral) -- saved and restored: Khan Academy (closed and open); and WGA. Optional: Irresistible: How the Ghent Altarpiece Became the World's Most Frequently Stolen Artwork (Blouin Artinfo).
Altarpiece (1477-89, St. Mary's Basilica, Kraków): removed to Berlin (1941), recovered (1946), and returned to Kraków (1956) -- restored.
Leonardo da Vinci
Portrait of a Young Man (c. 1513-14, The Czartoryski Museum, Krakow): missing (Wikipedia and Monuments Men Foundation) since 1945, but perhaps rediscovered; and the contemporary Portrait of Bindo Altoviti (1512-15).
Peter Paul Rubens
Three Theological Virtues (Private Collection, Rome): "Stolen by soldiers of the German Army from the EGELI (Institute for Management and Sale of Property, Ministry of Finance) Repository in 1944" (Monuments Men Foundation) -- Monuments Men Foundation and Allegory on the Blessings of Peace (1629-30, National Gallery, London).
Amber Room (1701-11): gifted by the Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm I to Tsar Peter the Great (1716), installed in Catherine the Great's palace at Tsarskoye Selo outside Saint Petersburg, returned to Germany (1941), lost 1945, and recreated 2003 -- Mystery of the Amber Room (National Geographic: Treasure Wars) [6 minutes] and 60-year hunt for Russian Czars' missing Amber Room may be over after discovery in Germany (Daily Mail, 2011). Optional: Beauty: section 15 [2 minutes] (BBC: Dan Cruickshank’s Adventures in Architecture); A Brief History of the Amber Room (Smithsonian); and Five-ton ‘Amber Room’ worth $30mn found in Russia (RT, 2013).
Francisco de Goya
Manet Painting in Monet's Garden at Argenteuil (1874, Martha and Max Liebermann Collection, 1898-1943): "confiscated and sold in Berlin in 1943" (Monuments Men Foundation); and photograph of Max Liebermann's Berlin apartment on Pariser Platz with Monet's painting in the corner of the middle wall (1932).
Vincent van Gogh
The Painter on His Way to Tarascon (1888, Kaiser-Friedrich Museum, Magdeburg, Germany): missing since 1945 (Monuments Men Foundation and Destroyed Van Gogh Artworks). Optional: Francis Bacon, Study for a Portrait of Van Gogh IV (1957, Tate) and On the Road to Tarascon: Francis Bacon Meets Vincent van Gogh.
Vase with Five Sunflowers (1888, private collection of Japanese industrialist Koyata Yamamoto, 1920-45): destroyed during American fire-bombing raid (5-6 August 1945) -- painting and Destroyed Van Gogh Artworks.
University of Vienna Ceiling Paintings: Philosophy, Medicine, and Jurisprudence (1900-07): burned during a fire set by retreating SS troops in the Schloss Immendorf in Lower Austria (1945) -- Wikipedia and Missing masterpieces: The greatest art show you'll never see, curated by Jonathan Jones (The Guardian).
Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I (1907) -- Wikipedia.
VII: Human Rights
THEME: Casualties of the Second War to End All Wars, Part II: People, captured by the Holocaust experiences depicted in Elie Wiesel's Night (1933-45).
THE HOLOCAUST -- The Final Solution (The Holocaust, The Shoah) (The Map as History); and Introduction to the Holocaust: text and animated map, Wannsee Conference and the "Final Solution." and World War II and the Holocaust (Animated Map) (USHMM). Optional: Genocide Under the Nazis (The Holocaust) (BBC); Memory of the Camps (PBS); Mapping the SS Concentration Camp System over Space and Time (USHMM); Shtetl (PBS); The Holocaust (The Open University); and Children of the Holocaust (SND Films).
Maps -- Study at least one map: The Holocaust, 1939-1945 (McGraw-Hill: Maps in Motion); Concentration Camps, 1942-1945, and European rail system, 1939 (USHMM); The Holocaust (McGraw-Hill); and Where Were the Camps?, Hitler’s “Final Solution”: Jews Marked for Death, and Deportation Railways (Norton iMaps).
WIESEL -- Elie Wiesel, Romania 1933 (with Sighet Marmatiei indicated), Ghettos in occupied Hungary, 1944, and Deportations from Hungarian ghettos to Auschwitz (USHMM); and Life in Sighet, Romania, 1920-1939 (PBS: Elie Wiesel: First Person Singular). Optional: Elie Wiesel: First Person Singular [55 minutes] (PBS); Facing Hate [57 minutes] (Bill Moyers); Elie Wiesel: Dead Stars, Dead Eyes [58 minutes] (2002); Night study and teachers' guides (Macmillan); and Oprah's Book Club.
AUSCHWITZ -- Auschwitz Birkenau: German Nazi Concentration and Extermination Camp (1940-1945): introductory paragraph and video [3 minutes] (UNESCO World Heritage Sites); Auschwitz: text and animated map (USHMM); How could they get away with it? (Time Travel Turtle); and Interactive Map (PBS: Auschwitz: Inside the Nazi State). Optional: A Virtual Tour of Auschwitz/Birkenau (Remember.org: A Cybrary of the Holocaust); The Last Expression: Art and Auschwitz; Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum (USHMM); Auschwitz: Blueprint for Genocide [49 minutes] (BBC); and God on Trial [60 minutes] (The Open University).
Dr. Josef Mengele -- biography (USHMM).
Anne Frank -- Anne Frank: biography, photographs, and map (USHMM). Optional: Anne Frank Museum; Anne Frank (1939) (Iconic Photos); Anne Frank the Writer: An Unfinished Story (USHMM); and Memories of Anne Frank [51 minutes] (Radio Netherlands Television).
Auschwitz -- Beethoven's Violin Concerto in D major op. 61, the last movement of the concerto likely referenced on Night, p. 95: listen while reading the articles below [last 11 minutes].
Buchenwald -- Buchenwald (USHMM). Optional: Buchenwald Concentration Camp (Third Reich in Ruins); and The Buchenwald and Mittebau-Dora Memorials Foundation and Buchenwald Concentration Camp (Scrapbookpages).
Liberation -- Liberation of Nazi Camps: text and maps and Aftermath of the Holocaust (USHMM). Optional: Belsen Concentration Camp's Liberation and The End of Belsen Murder Camp (The British Pathé War Archives, 1945) [4 minutes] and Wiesel Speaks at Buchenwald (05 July 2009) [2 minutes].
U.N. Declaration of Human Rights (1949) -- What are the universal human rights? [5 minutes] (TED Ed); A clever arrangement (National Geographic); Founders of the United Nations (1945); and AD Classics (ArchDaily). Optional: United Nations Headquarters (1953, Essential Architecture).
Color: Mark Rothko ('murican) -- Mark Rothko's Painting Technique (Khan Academy); Modern Dreams, segments 17-19 (Graham-Dixon: Art of America); and History of Ideas: Art [7 minutes] (The School of Life). Optional: Mark Rothko (NGA); Artchive; Mark Rothko (MoMA at Khan Academy) The Painting Techniques of Mark Rothko: No. 16 (Red, Brown, and Black) (MoMA); The trouble with Mark Rothko’s genius (The Times); Simon Schama's Power of Art (PBS and BBC) and episode [53 minutes]; Rothko: An Abstract Humanist [52 minutes] (Lagardere); and Rothko's Room: The Life and Work of an American Artist [46 minutes]. Study at least the red item:
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