MODERN WESTERN WORLD, II: Revolutions

 

 


TOPICS

 

EMPIRES

 MODERNISM

 THE GREAT WAR

 HUMANE RIGHTS

 

Return to WebBooks for History Courses

 

 

 

EMPIRES, I: Socialism and Liberalism

 

THEME: Emerging ideologies challenge political capitalism, especially in the writings of Marx and Engels, and Mill. (19C).

 

REVOLUTIONS, 1815-48 -- Europe at the time of the Congress of Vienna, 1815-1848 (The Map as History) and The Revolutions of 1848 (Wadsworth Modules) Optional: France's many revolutions and republics (Khan Academy); The Congress of Vienna, Revolutions of National Independence in the Atlantic World, 1776-1829, and Civil Unrest and Revolutions in Europe, 1819-1848 (Norton iMaps); and Europe, 1815 and European Revolutions, 1848 (McGraw-Hill).

SOCIALISM -- Capitalism and Socialism (Crash Course World History and transcript) and The Communist Manifesto illustrated by Cartoons [8 minutes].  Optional: Reflections on Karl Marx, The Utopian Socialists: Charles Fourier, Robert Owen and Saint-Simon, and The Age of Ideologies (3): The World of Auguste Comte (The History Guide); and Karl Marx (BBC: The Mark Steel Lectures) [30 minutes].

 

LIBERALISM -- John Stuart Mill (1806-1873): Introduction, Biography, and On Liberty (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy) and March of Democracy (Maps of War) "See 4,000 years of democracy in 90 seconds."  Optional: On Liberty (Squashed Philosophers); Mill, Autobiography: "A Crisis in my Mental History" [12 minutes]; John Stuart Mill -- On Liberty (2 parts) [20 minutes]; and John Stuart Mill: The Liberal Tradition [30 minutes].

 

 

 

 

II: Nationalism

 

THEME: The foundation of modern nation-states in 'murica, Germany, and Italy (mid-19C).

 

NATIONALISM -- The Western Tradition, 44: The Age of the Nation States.  Optional: European Language Groups, c. 1850 and Europe, 1871 (McGraw-Hill); The Peoples of Europe, ca. 1850 (OUP); and Victorian art and architecture (Khan Academy).

 

'MURICA -- The Civil War, 1861-1865 (Brinkley).  OptionalThe Election of 1860 & the Road to Disunion, The Civil War, Part I, The Civil War, Part II, and Battles of the Civil War (Crash Course US History); and the American Civil War section of 'murican History (WebBooks).  And study at least one work:

ITALY -- Unification of Italy and Germany (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations) and Unification of Italy (Wadsworth Modules).  Optional: Unification of Italy (Pearson Active Maps); Unification of Italy (McGraw-Hill); Italian Unification and German Unification, 1815-1871 (Norton iMaps); The Unification of Italy (Pearson); Unifying Italy (Pearson: Audio Guided Tour); Italian Unification (Amit Mendelsohn); and Italian satirical map of Europe, 1870 (imgur).  And study at least one work:

GERMANY -- Unification of Germany (Wadsworth Modules) and Nation Building, 1848-1870: Italy, Germany and Comparative Examples: study "Setting: Art and Unification" and "Comparisons: U.S. Civil War" (Wadsworth: History Unbound).  Optional: Forging an Empire: Bismarckian Germany (1866-1890) (German History in Documents and Images); The Road to National Unification (Scheck); The German Question, 1815-1871 and Unification of Germany (McGraw-Hill); The Unification of Germany (Wadsworth); Imperial Germany, 1871 (Bereznay); and Unification of Germany, 1865-1871 (Pearson: Audio Guided Tour).  And study at least one work:

 


III: Imperialism

 

IMPERIALISM -- 19C Imperialism (Crash Course World History and transcript); The British Empire, Trading Routes and Construction and The Middle East at the Beginning of the 20th Century (The Map as History); European Imperialism 1880-1900: Theory, Practice, Discourse (Wadsworth: History Unbound); and Share of World Manufacturing Output 1900 (OUP).  Optional: Empire: Politics, Conquest, and Dissolution (1500-2000) (Wadsworth: World History Unbound); Beginning of World War I: Empires before World War I and German and Italian Empires in 1914 (Khan Academy); Imperialism (Modern World History: Interactive Textbook); and An Age of Modernity, Anxiety, and Imperialism, 1891-1914 timeline (Wadsworth).

 

 

 

 

IV: Realism and Impressionism

 

THEME: Emerging artistic movements challenge political capitalism (19C).

 

ART -- Becoming Modern (Smarthistory) and The Art of the Western World, 7: A Fresh View -- Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, Part I [until minute 28.23].  Optional: The Rise of Modernism: Art of the Later 19th Century (Online And study Guide for Gardner's Art through the Ages: The Western Perspective).

 

And study the main topics below (Photography, Realism, and Impressionism), the art work(s) in red, and at least three other art works by at least two different artists:

 

PHOTOGRAPHY -- Early Photography (Smarthistory).  Optional: other photographers in Smarthistory and Photo Seed: early 19-20C photography.

 

REALISM -- Realism (Smarthistory).  Optional: Realism (Khan Academy) and Realism in France 19th Century, Part 1: Daumier and Courbet (Mencher) [28 minutes].

IMPRESSIONISM -- The Art Story; Impressionism: Color in Art (Artyfactory) and How the Impressionists Got Their Name (Smarthistory).  Optional: Impressionism (Khan Academy); The First Impressionist Exhibition, 1874 (Artchive); WebMuseum; EyconArt; The Impressionists with Tim Marlow [60 minutes]; Impressionism: A Circle of Friends (WetCanvas); Waldemar Januszczak: The Impressionists (BBC: Your Paintings) [6 minutes]; and The Impressionists (BBC: Richard Armitage).

 

 

 


V: Post-Impressionism

 

THEME: Art and conquest in the age of European imperialism before World War I (1914).

 

POST-IMPRESSIONISM -- The Art Story; Post Impressionism: The Roots of Modern Art (Artyfactory); and The Art of the Western World, 7: A Fresh View -- Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, Part II [minutes 28.23-55.10].  Optional: Post-Impressionism and Sculpture (Khan Academy).  And study at least four art works by at least three different artists:

ARCHITECTURE -- Optional: 19th C Technology and Architecture [15 minutes] and Paris during the 19th Century Baron Haussmann, Charles Garnier and Gustave Caillebotte [20 minutes] (Mencher).  Study at least one building:

MUSIC: Impressionist -- Study at least one musical piece:

 

 

 

MODERNISM, I: Tolstoy

 

 

THEME: Russian artists challenge Western European Isms (19C).

 

TOLSTOY -- Images of Tolstoy (The Voice of Russia's Global Discussion); The Big Read Promo [6 minutes]; The Western Tradition, 45: A New Public; Leo Tolstoy (Books and Writers); and Images of Tolstoy Optional: The Last Station (2009): review (Roger Ebert); Tolstoy (BBC: In Our Time) [45-minute audio]; Tolstoy's estate at Yasnaya Polyana (Wikipedia); Leo Tolstoy at Yasnaya Polyana [2 minutes].

 

lILA REPIN -- The Peredvizhniki (The Wanderers) Optional: Russian Painting during the Age of Romanticism and Nineteenth-Century Russian Art: "Ideological Realism" (Dartmouth College); and Realism (Early Twenty-Century Russian Drama).

 


II: Dostoevsky

 

DOSTOEVSKY -- The Western Tradition, 46: Fin de Siècle; Dostoevsky (Books and Writers); Vasily Perov, Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1872); Fyodor Dostoyevsky - Peter Ustinov (Peter Ustinov's Russia, 1986) [7 minutes]; and Monty Python: The Spanish Inquisition [9 minutes].  Optional: The Brothers Karamazov and The Dark Knight / The Grand Inquisitor (Thug Notes); Mass Society in an "Age of Progress," 1874-1891 timeline; The Soviet film of The Brothers Karamazov (1969) curiously substitutes another story for Dostoevsky's original "The Grand Inquisitor" scene [8 minutes]; The Grand Inquisitor: a clever short story drawing loosely on Dostoevsky's parable [22 minutes]; Crime and Punishment - Book Summary & Analysis and Notes from Underground (Dostoyevsky) - Book Summary & Analysis (Thug Notes); and The Existentialist Frame of Mind (The History Guide)

 


III: Vienna

 

THEME: New ways of understanding humanity through philosophy and the arts at the turn of the century (1900).

 

NIETZSCHE (German) -- Nietzsche, Freud and the Thrust Toward Modernism 1 and 2 (The History Place) and Friedrich Nietzsche (Three Minute Philosophy) Optional: The Revolt Against the Western Intellectual Tradition: Friedrich Nietzsche and the Birth of Modernism (The History Guide) and Nietzsche: Beyond Good and Evil (BBC) [50 minutes].

 

FREUD (Austrian) -- Either Sigmund Freud: Exploring the Unconscious (serious) [25 minutes] or Sigmund Freud (serious fun) (BBC: Mark Steel) [30 minutes].  Optional: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy; Sigmund Freud Museum, Vienna; The full Interpretation of Dreams in English translation (1911); Sigmund Freud [51 minutes]; Dream Interpretation Online Course [2 minutes]; City of Dreams (Vienna 1900-1935): Sigmund Freud (Philharmonia Orchestra) [4 minutes]; 1913: When Hitler, Trotsky, Tito, Freud and Stalin all lived in the same place (BBC).

 

Study the red works and at least two other art works below:

 

SYMBOLISM -- Modern Art Timeline 1: Artists, Movements and Styles in Modern Art (1870-1930) (Artyfactory).  Optional:  Symbolism and Art Nouveau (Khan Academy); Dancing over the edge: Vienna in 1914 (BBC); City of Dreams (Vienna 1900-1935): Social Changes in 20th Century Vienna [6 minutes], Popular Culture [5 minutes], Technology in Vienna [3 minutes], and Art in Vienna Part 2 [3.30 minutes] (Philharmonia Orchestra); The Art of the Western World, 8: Into the Twentieth Century, Part I; The Secession Building (Secession); Otto Wagner, Post Office Savings Bank (1906); Vienna Secession: Klimt, Freud, and Jung (Suites Culturelles); and The Allure of Art Nouveau: Vienna (BBC) [57 minutes].

SURREALISM -- The Art Story Optional: Surrealism: The Dream of Revolution (All Art); Surrealism (The Minneapolis Museum of Arts); and Surrealism and Freudian Theory and The Surrealist Object (Art History Unstuffed). 

MUSIC -- Study at least one piece:

 

 

 

IV: Paris

 

THEME: More new ways of understanding humanity through the arts (early 20C).

 

STRAVNISKY -- Stravinsky's Rite of Spring (PBS) [55 minutes] and Pablo Picasso, Igor Stravinsky (1920).  Optional: Stravinsky, Rite of Spring (Keeping Score): "A Riotous Premier" and "Explore the Score;"  Stravinsky (ArtsAlive); Riot at the Rite (BBC): notes on a 2005 TV drama and the film, with the performance beginning in Part 4; Milestones of the Millennium: The Rite of Spring (NPR); 100 years on: Igor Stravinsky on The Rite of Spring (TLS, 2013); Listening Guide: Stravinsky's Rite of Spring, Esa-Pekka Salonen on The Rite of Spring, Philharmonia on Tour: Paris & The Rite of Spring (2013), Listening Guide: Stravinsky's The Firebird Suite, and Listening Guide: Stravinsky's The Firebird Suite (Paul Rissmann) (Philharmonia Orchestra);  Early Twentieth-Century Russian Drama; Costume from The Rite of Spring (W&AM); Listening Outline (Kamien's Music: An Appreciation); and Igor Stravinsky: Picture Gallery (Classical Music Pages).

MODERNISM -- Optional: Early abstraction: Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism and Futurism (Khan Academy); La Belle Epoque: Paris 1914 and Berlin 1914: A city of ambition and self-doubt (BBC); The Art of the Western World, 8: Into the Twentieth Century, Part I; Herbert Kline's The Challenge: A Tribute to Modern Art [100 minutes]. Aspects of Modernism: The Visual Arts, 1863-1939 and Comparing Modern Art: Realism and the Beginnings of Modernism (Wadsworth Modules); and Modern Art Timeline 2: Artists, Movements and Styles in Modern Art (1916-1975) (Artyfactory). 

 

Study the red items below and at least one other work by any other artist:

 

ART NOUVEAU -- The Art Story.  Optional: Art Deco and Art Deco Byzantine-Deco architecture (Essential Architecture).

FAUVISM -- The Art Story; Smarthistory; and Fauvism: New Possibilities for Color in Art (Artyfactory).

CUBISM -- The Art Story and Cubism: The First Style of Abstract Art (Artyfactory).  Optional: Artchive; Cubism (MMOA); The MoMA's Hot Mamas and Gender and Sexuality in European Art from the Late Nineteenth to the Early Twentieth Centuries (Farber); and Cubist architecture (Essential Architecture). 

EXPRESSIONISM -- Expressionism: The Spirit of Expressionist Art (Artyfactory) and WebMuseum Optional: 20th C Expressionism: Klimt, Munch, and Kirchner (Mencher) [31 minutes]; German Expressionism and Der Blaue Reiter (MOMA); and German Expressionism, Der Blaue Reiter, and Der Blaue Reiter Painting (Art History Unstuffed). 

DADA -- The Art Story Optional: Dada (Mencher) [35 minutes]; DADA Companion; Dada on Display at the National Gallery of Art (NPR); Dada and the Great War (Art History Unstuffed); and Behold the Buffoon’: Dada, Nietzsche’s Ecce Homo and the Sublime (Tate: The Art of the Sublime).

 

 

 

THE GREAT WAR, I: The Somme

 

THEME: The First War to End All Wars redefines realities (1914-18).

 

WORLD WAR I -- The Western Tradition, 47: The First World War and the Rise of Fascism [end at minute 7.45] and Europe Plunges into War (The Map as History).  Optional: The Origins of World War I (Wadsworth Modules); Beginning of World War I (Khan Academy); If WWI were a bar fight; World War I (EmperorTigerstar) [3.30 minutes]; World War One (Modern World History: Interactive Textbook); World War I, 1914-1918 (McDougal Littell: Animated History); War and Revolution, World War I: the European and Middle Eastern Theaters, and World War I: the Global Theater (Norton iMaps); Campaign Atlas to the Great War (US Military Academy); and 1917: Did the War Cause a Revolution? (Digital History Reader).

 

BALKANS -- Militarism and Alliances in Europe, 1914 (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations) and The Origins of World War I: "Setting" and "Map" (Wadsworth: History Unbound).  Optional: The Balkans, 1878 and 1914, and Europe in 1914 (McGraw-Hill); and The Balkans, 1878 and 1914, Europe in 1914, and Europe on the Eve of World War I (Wadsworth).

 

WESTERN FRONT -- The Western Front (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations) Optional: Western and Eastern fronts of World War I and Other fronts of World War I (Khan Academy); War in Europe, 1914-1918 and Trench Warfare (McDougal Littell: Animated History); Lessons of the Great War: All Quiet on the Western Front (Thomson Learning Center): "Movie Description" and "Historical Background," and the full original movie [2.08 hours] made from Erich Maria Remarque's novel; The First World War, World War I in Europe, 1914-1918, The Western Front, 1914-1918, WWI: Western Front, The Western Front, and Territorial Gains, 1914-19 (McGraw-Hill); America in World War I and Influenza Epidemic (McGraw-Hill: Interactive Map Quiz); World War I Troop Strength and Casualties (Wadsworth); All Quiet on the Western Front - Book Summary & Analysis (Thug Notes); and Death on the eve of Armistice (The Open University: Michael Palin). 

THE SOMME (1916) -- The Battle of the Somme (PBS), and Battle of the Somme: 1 July-13 November 1916 and Animated Map: Battle of the Somme (BBC).  Optional: The Somme (War Walks: Richard Holmes, 1996) [29 minutes]; Battle of the Somme (Line of Fire) [40 minutes]; Battle of the Somme (BBC History Trail); The Human Face of War, and World War I soldier wills digitised for online archive (BBC); Why was the Battle of the Somme film bigger than Star Wars? (BBC: iWonder); Battle of the Somme: Battlefield, Film, Photographs, and Texts (including a lengthy excerpt from Robert Graves' Goodbye to All That); Thiepval Memorial (Australians on the Western Front, 1914-1918); Thiepval War Memorial Virtual Tour (BBC); The Trench (1999): ending [10 minutes]; The Somme (War Walks: Richard Holmes, 1996) [29 minutes]; The Battle of the Somme (CWGC); and Battle of the Somme: 1 July-13 November 1916, The Human Face of War, and World War I soldier wills digitised for online archive (BBC); and Ypres and the Somme Today (Echoes of War).

ART -- Optional: World War I and Dada (Khan Academy); British Art and Literature During WWI (Smarthistory) and The Art of War (BBC War Art Documentary).  Study at least two works by two different artists:

MUSIC (Optional) --  The Great War, text and audio [25 minutes] (NPR's Performance Today: Milestones of the Millennium), with artists and works referenced below; and Vaughan Williams: At War (Philharmonia Orchestra).

 

  


II: Petrograd

 

 

THEME: Russia emerges from World War I with totalitarian socialism (1917-41).

 

USSR -- War and Revolution in Russia 1914-1921 (BBC); "A New World Arisen": Russia's Revolutions, 1900-1924: Setting, Power on Paper, and Perspectives (Wadsworth: History Unbound); and The Age of Totalitarianism: Stalin and Hitler: through Stalin (The History Guide).  Optional: Seventeen Moments in Soviet History; Lectures on Twentieth Century Europe, 5-7 (The History Place); Russia in the 20th Century (Mapping History); The Soviet Union, 1928-1941 (Pearson: Audio Guided Tour); The Face of Russia (PBS); Russian Revolution (Internet Modern History Sourcebook); Early Twenty-Century Russian Drama: Designers, Directors, Plays, and Visual Arts (Northwestern U. Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures); and Alexander Palace Time Machine.

 

STALINISM -- Study at least one topic:

ARCHITECTURE -- Study at least one work:

ART -- Study at least one work:

MUSIC -- Study at least one work:

FILM

MEXICAN MODERNISM -- Study at least the red works:

 

 

 

 

III: Berlin and Rome

 

THEME: In the inter-war era, Germany and Italy transform into powerful totalitarian fascist nations (1919-39).

 

THE LONG WEEKEND -- Europe After World War I (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations); The Western Tradition, 47: The First World War and the Rise of Fascism [begin at minute 7.45]; and Europe after World War I (The Map as History).  Optional: The Age of Anxiety: Europe in the 1920s (1) and (2) (The History Guide); Treaty of Versailles Activity (BBC); Norton iMaps; The End of Optimism? The Great Depression in Europe (Digital History Reader); Changes in Europe, 1919 and Politics in Europe, 1930s (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations); Territorial Settlements 1919-26 and The League of Nations (McGraw-Hill); Post-War Europe 1919 (McDougal Littell); and The Political Revolution of the 1930s (Mapping History).

 

BERLIN

 

GERMANY -- The Age of Totalitarianism: Stalin and Hitler: study Hitler (The History Guide) and The Swastika: Catawba College's annual Optional: The Weimar Republic: The Fragility of Democracy (Facing History and Ourselves); Rise of Hitler and the Nazis and Rise of Mussolini and Fascism (Khan Academy); and The Fatal Attraction of Adolf Hitler (BBC).  Study at least one topic:

PROPAGANDA -- The Power of Nazi Propaganda (Reason TV on USHMM exhibit) [6 minutes] and The Führer and Youth (Adolf Hitler with a Little Girl), Postcard (1933) (GHDI).  Optional: State of Deception: The Power of Nazi Propaganda and May 10, 1933, The Burning of Books [3 minutes] (USHMM); Nazi Propaganda and The Fatal Attraction of Adolf Hitler (BBC); Nazi and East German Propaganda (Calvin College); "Reich Party Rally for Freedom," Nuremberg (September 1, 1935) and Display Window with Busts of Hitler: Souvenirs from the "Reich Party Rally for Freedom," Nuremberg (Fall 1935) (GHDI); Art as a Political Statement in the 1930s (Online And study Guide for Gardner's Art through the Ages: The Western Perspective); Walt Disney, The Story of One of "Hitler's Children" as Adopted from Education for Death (1943) [10 minutes]; and Roger Ebert's review of Triumph of the Will.

ARCHITECTURE -- Optional: Order from Stone: Nazi Architecture (U. Michigan: Art under Fascism); and Top Ten Nazi Architecture and Fascist Stripped Classical (German) (Essential Architecture).  Study at least one topic:

NAZI ART -- Art in Nazi Germany (Smarthistory).  Optional: Degenerate art: Why Hitler hated modernism (BBC); House of German Art and the Degenerate Art Show photographs (1937) (Totalitarian Art: Werckmeister); The Nazi Aesthetic: New Online Database Makes Third Reich Art Public (Spiegel, 2011) and GDK Research – research platform for images of the Great German Art Exhibitions 1937-1944 in Munich, with tour of rooms and search engine, with depictions of Hitler; Nazi History Painting (Painting History); Naked bodies, ideal world: Online archive shows Hitler's artistic vision (DW); House of German Art (Haus der Deutschen Kunst) (Traces of Evil: Remaining Nazi Sites in Germany); Haus der Deutschen Kunst, Munich (Third Reich in Ruins); Nazi Approved Art (Florida Holocaust Museum); The Visualisation of National Socialist Ideology; Works of Art from Nazi Germany (Skidmore); Chaos and Classicism: Art in France, Italy, and Germany, 1918-1936 (The Guggenheim on Art Babble); German Art in its Nazi Expression and Arno Breker: Hitler's Michelangelo (Searching for Hitler and His Henchmen); The Visualisation of National Socialist Ideology (The Censure of Democracy); First "Great German Art Exhibition": "Direction-Setting Works of German Art" (July 18, 1937) (GHDI); and Berlin (Totalitarian Art).  And study at least one artwork:

 

ROME

 

FASCISM -- Europe 1933, Italy indicated and Italy, 1939 (USHMM); and Hitler visits Rome (1938): brief article (History Today) and video [1.30 minutes].  Optional: Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) (BBC); Benito Mussolini: What is Fascism, 1932 (Modern History Sourcebook); Hitler Visits Italy: pictures (1934) (The Hitler Pages: Historical Hitler Sites); and Carl Mydans, The Elderly Butcher Boy of Fascism (09 May 1940) (Iconic Photos).

 

FUTURISM -- Italian Futurism: An Introduction and Three Futurists: Balla, Severini and Boccioni (1929) (Smarthistory).  Optional: The Art Story and Futurist architecture (Essential Architecture).  And study at least one art work:

FASCIST ART (Optional) -- Rome (Totalitarian Art: Werckmeister); Rationalist-Fascist Architecture (Italian Fascist) and Esposizione Universale Roma (EUR, 1935) (Essential Architecture).

 

 

 


IV: Guernica

 

THEME: Competing ideologies drive Europe into the Second War to End All Wars, anticipated by the Spanish Civil War and captured by Picasso's Guernica (1930s).

 

MOVING TOWARD WORLD WAR II -- German and Italian Expansion, 1935-1939, Hitler's Actions in Europe 1936-1939, and The Causes of World War II in Europe, 1935-1939 (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations).   Optional: German gains, 1936-1938 and Partition of Czechoslovakia, 1938-1939 (USHMM); Aggression in Europe, 1931-1939 and Aggression in Asia, 1931-1939 (McDougal Littell: Animated History); and Europe at War (Norton iMaps).

 

SPANISH CIVIL WAR (1936-39) -- Salvador Dali, Soft Construction with Boiled Beans (Premonition of Civil War) (1936).  Optional: Paths of Memory: 1936-1939 (European Union Culture 2000); The Spanish Civil War (EmperorTigerstar); The Visual Front: Posters of the Spanish Civil War from UCSD's Southworth Collection (U. of CA at San Diego); and The Spanish Civil War (BBC: In Our Time) [45-minute audio].

 

GUERNICA (1937) -- Picasso's Guernica (Smarthistory); Guernica: Testimony of War: film [begin at minute 29.15 (25 minutes total)] and text (PBS: Treasures of the World); and Guernica (2002): Marcelo Ricardo Ortiz's clever 3D animation with Duran Duran (The Chauffer, 1983), Vincent van Gogh (Bedroom in Arles, 1888), Salvador Dali (The Persistence of Memory, 1931), M. C. Escher (Relativity, 1953), and Picasso (Guernica).  Optional: The Legacy of Guernica (BBC); War and Peace in the Art of Pablo Picasso: "Guernica" (1937) and Pablo Picasso (1881-1973): From the Spanish Civil War to Vietnam (David Hart); Farber; Artyfactory; Gio's Paint Brush [6 minutes]; Totalitarian Art; and Keiskamma Guernica (2010).

DEGENERATE ART -- 1907-1960 Age of Global Conflict (Smarthistory): Picasso's Three Women at the Spring (1921), René Magritte's The Human Condition (1933), and Piet Mondrian's Broadway Boogie-Woogie (1943-44).  Optional: Art between the wars: the avant-garde and the rise of totalitarianism and Architecture in the early 20th century (Khan Academy); Degenerate Art (Entartete Kunst) (U. of South Florida: A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust); Degenerate Art (Wikipedia); "Degenerate" Art (The Greatest Theft in History); From Picasso to Munich: Chaos and Classicism: Modernism between the Wars (Haber); Architecture in the Early 20th Century, Modernism, Bauhaus, DeStijl and International Style (Mencher) [27.30 minutes]; and 1925: The Year in Review (Artchive).   And study at least one building or artwork:

Joan Miró, Woman Haunted by the Passage of the Bird-Dragonfly Omen of Bad News (1938) and information (Toledo Museum of Art) = Munich Agreement

 

 

WORDS -- Refugee Blues by W. H. Auden (1939) (Peace Pledge Union), To an Unknown Citizen (1939), and Funeral Blues (1936) recited in Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994) [2 minutes].

 

MUSIC -- Samuel Barber, Adagio for Strings (1936) [6 minutes] and The Impact of Barber's Adagio for Strings (NPR): read the main article and What Makes It Great: Barber's Adagio (read and listen from the "More Barber Stories" section) from National Public Radio's "All Things Considered" (2006). And study at least one other musical piece:

 


V: Normandy

 

THEME: The Second War to End All Wars in Europe (1939-45).

 

WORLD WAR II -- The Western Heritage, 48: The Second World War; World War II (Crash Course World History and transcript); and World War Two: Summary Outline of Key Events (BBC).  Optional: World War II: In Depth and Timeline (USHMM); Timeline of World War II (PBS: The War); Hitler and World War Two (The History Guide); The Second World War: five maps and Conflicts in WWII (Norton, requires Google Earth).

 

NORMANDY

 

EUROPE -- World War II in Europe and North Africa, 1939-1941 and The War in Europe and North Africa, 1942-1945 (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations).  Optional: and World War II in Europe: Summary and Timeline (USHMM); World War II: the European Theater (Norton iMaps); World War II in Europe and North Africa and Allied Advances and Collapse of German Power (Wadsworth); Europe, 1942 and Height of Axis Power 1942 (McGraw-Hill: Palmer); and World War II in Europe and Africa, 1942-1945 (McDougal Littell: Animated History).  

 

FRANCE, Part I -- Animated Map: The Fall of France (Dunkirk) and The Fall of France (BBC).  Optional: German Invasion of Western Europe, May 1940, German invasion of western Europe, 1940, German conquests in Europe, 1939-1942 map, and Occupation of the southern zone, November 1942 (USHMM); June 23, 1940 Paris (The Hitler Pages: Historical Hitler Sites).

BRITAIN -- Battle of Britain and The Blitz (BBC) and St. Paul's Cathedral during the Blitz: images only (Daily Mail).  Optional: The Battle of Britain (BBC); The Bombers and the Bombed: Coventry, England (1940) and Lübeck, Germany (1942) (BBC: WW2 Movies); The Battle of Britain (History Animated); Balham in the Blitz and now – interactive: click on the image to change (14 October 1940) (The Guardian); and The Anglo-American raids on Hamburg during the Second World War (1943) (The Guardian).

 

AFRICA -- Animated Map: The North African Campaign (BBC).  Optional: Southern Europe and North Africa Campaign Interactive Map (EDSITEment!); North African Campaigns, 1942-1945 (Pearson); North Africa (History Animated); The Battle of El Alamein, Animated Map: The Battle of El Alamein, Allied Landings in French North Africa and Second Battle of El Alamein (BBC); Focus on: Kasserine Pass (The National WWII Museum, New Orleans); and Poet Keith Douglas on El Alamein (The Guardian)

 

ITALY -- Animated Map: The Italian Campaign (BBC).  Optional: Defeat of Nazi Germany, 1942-1945 and Italy (USHMM); The 'D-Day Dodgers', Allied Landings in Sicily, Allied Landings in Italy, Battle of Monte Cassino and World War Two: The Battle of Monte Cassino (BBC); German-occupied areas of Italy, 1943, Major Nazi camps in Occupied Italy, 1943-1944, Italy, camps for displaced persons, and Deportations from Italy, 1943-1945 (USHMM); The Man Who Never Was and Jean Leslie (1923-2010); Focus on: Stalemate at Anzio (The National WWII Museum, New Orleans); The Battles of Cassino, 1944 (Commonwealth War Graves Commission: Information Leaflets); and Roger Waters pens poem for veteran who found father's place of death (Anzio, 1944) (The Guardian).

FRANCE, Part II: Normandy (1944) -- D-Day (Pearson: Events that changed the world); Operation Overlord: D-Day to Paris and Animated Map: Operation Overlord (BBC); and North Europe Campaign Interactive Map (EDSITEment!).  Optional: Special Section: D-Day and Operation Overlord (BBC); Encyclopedia Britannica's Guide to Normandy 1944; The Normandy Landings: text and animated map (The War Times Journal); D-Day (Guardian); D-Day (McGraw-Hill: Beyond the Textbook); The Allies Land on D-Day (Pearson: History Interactive); and Saving Private Ryan (1998): Parts 1, 2, and 3. 

 

BERLIN -- The Battle for Berlin in World War Two and World War Two: How the Allies Won (BBC); and Three Flags of Khaldei (Iconic Photos).  Optional: Ian Kershaw, "Europe's Second Thirty Years War," History Today, 55/9 (2005); Victory in Europe and Japan (BBC) and End of the War in the Main-Spessart Region (Third Reich in Ruins); Battle off the Bulge: shorter and longer versions (BBC) and USHMM; Why Hitler's grand plan during the second world war collapsed (The Guardian); Köln and Pariser Platz an Reichstag (Traces of Evil: Remaining Nazi Sites in Germany); Nuremberg and Berlin (Totalitarian Art: Werckmeister); and Battle of Berlin: Part 2 and Raising Flag Over the Reichstag, When Hitler Met His End, and The End of the Thousand-Year Reich (Iconic Photos).

 

 

 

 


VI: Hiroshima

 

THEME: The Second War to End All Wars in Asia and the Pacific (1935-45).

 

WORLD WAR II: Asia and the Pacific -- World War II: Pacific, 1939-1945 (The National Archives) [6 minutes] and World War II in the Pacific and Pacific Basin, Japanese expansion (USHMM)  Optional: World War II Pacific Animated Maps (History Animated); World War Two: The Pacific Theater (Mapping History); and Ken Burns' The War (PBS, 2007), with full episodes at NCLive.

PEARL HARBOR (07 December 1941) -- Pearl Harbor: A Rude Awakening (BBC); Surprise Attack! Pearl Harbor and Japanese Aggression, December 1941-June 1942 (Pearson: History Interactive); and Pearl Harbour (from Above) and The Pearl Harbour Attacks (Iconic Photos).

 

SINGAPORE (8 December 1941-15 February 1942) -- Wikipedia: first two paragraphs; The Battle for Malaya (History Animated); and Jack Sharpe (Iconic Photos).  Optional: Fall Singapore and Malaya (BBC) and Fall of Singapore (Australia's War 1939-1945).  Optional: The Surrender of Singapore (15 February 1942) (Iconic Photos); "I Will Walk Out On My Own Two Feet" (CM War Stories, 2006); Horror of the fall recalled in POW homage (The Guardian, 2002); and Kranji War Cemetery and the Singapore Memorials (Commonwealth War Graves Commission: Information Leaflets).

 

DOOLITTLE RAID (18 April 1942) -- EyeWitness to History: introduction and History Animated Optional: Naval History & Heritage.

 

BURMA -- The Burma Campaign, The Burma Campaign 1941-1945, and Animated Map: The Burma Campaign (BBC).  Optional: Maps of the China-Burma-India Theater of World War II and Defence of Imphal and Kohima (BBC); Revealed: The terrible suffering and extraordinary courage of British WW2 soldiers fighting the Japanese in the Burmese jungle (Mail Online); and The Burma-Siam Railway and Its Cemeteries (Commonwealth War Graves Commission: Information Leaflets).

MIDWAY (03-07 June 1942) -- World War II in the Pacific (Houghton Mifflin); The Battle of Midway, 1942 (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations); The Battle of Midway (BBC); and Island-Hopping in the Pacific, 1942-1945 (McGraw-Hill: Maps in Motion).  Optional: Battle of Midway: The Japanese Attack and The American Counterattack (US Navy History) [9 minutes]; History Animated; and Catawba Alumnus Pilot of Famous Flying Dud. 

 

GUADALCANAL (August 1942-February 1943) -- History Animated.   Optional: Focus on: Guadalcanal (The National WWII Museum, New Orleans); Guadalcanal Campaign (Naval History & Heritage); First Offensive: The Marine Campaign For Guadalcanal (Marines in World War II Commemorative Series); and Hell in the Pacific: The rare pictures that reveal reality of the Battle of Guadalcanal (Mail Online).

 

PHILIPPINES

IWO JIMA (February-March 1945) -- History Animated; The First Flag on Iwo Jima (Iconic Photos); and Japan: No Surrender in World War Two (BBC).  Optional: Japan's Plan (PBS: American Experience: Victory in the Pacific).

 

OKINAWA (April-June 1945) -- History Animated Optional: Profile: Japan's Okinawa (BBC); Ken Burn's The War, Episode 7: A World Without War -- March 1945-September 1945 (PBS) [minutes 0.00.00-0.27.15 and 0.54.20-1.05.17]; and Civilians on Okinawa (PBS: American Experience: Victory in the Pacific). 

 

HIROSHIMA and NAGASAKI (06 and 09 August 1945) -- Hiroshima and Nagasaki: How the Atomic Bomb Changed Warfare During WWII (Education Portal); Nuclear Power: The End of the War Against Japan (BBC); and Keisuke Yamamoto, Hiroshima (1948) Optional: Hiroshima remembers atomic bomb (BBC).

VJ -- The Costs of War (PBS: American Experience: Victory in the Pacific); VJ Day (BBC); and VJ Day Kiss (Iconic Photos).

 

 

 


HUMANE RIGHTS, I: Culture Wars

 

THEME: Casualties of the Second War to End All Wars, Part I: Culture (1933-45).

 

DEGENERATE ART -- Degenerate Art: Exhibition Guide (1937) (GHDI).  Optional: Degenerate Art: "Take Dada Seriously! – It’s Worth It ", "German Peasants – From a Jewish Perspective", and Wilhelm Lehmbruck’s Large Kneeling Woman (1937), and "Degenerate Music": Title Page of the Exhibition Guide (1938) (GHDI); and Degenerate Art: The Nazis vs. Expressionism [56 minutes].

 

STOLEN ART -- Hitler's Museum: The Secret History of Art Theft during World War II, Part 2 [51 minutes].  Optional: Raping the Art in Europe (Searching for Hitler and His Henchmen); Hitler's Museum: The Secret History of Art Theft during World War II, Part 1 [51 minutes]; The Nazi Plundering of Europe (BBC: Secrets of World War II, 1998) [51 minutes]; Nazi Art Theft (National Geographic); Louvre: Le Louvre pendant la guerre (Liberation Culture), The Louvre During the War (Le Blog, 2009), and How the French Hid the Louvre’s Masterpieces During WWII (Twisted Sifter); Nazi Art Podcasts, Parts One, Two, and Three (Art History Unstuffed); Top 10 Famous Pieces of Art Stolen by the Nazis (toptenz); Führermuseum, Nazi plunder, and Soviet Trophy Brigades (Wikipedia); and Top Ten ARTnews Stories: Tracking the Trophy Brigade (2007).

MONUMENTS MEN (Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives program, 1943-46) -- The WWII soldiers who saved art (BBC, 2009) [3.30 minutes]; The Monuments Men and Women [5.30 minutes]; map (Harvard Magazine); and The Monuments Men film with trailer (2014).  Optional: A. S. Pennoyer and the Monuments Men: photographic exhibit (Princeton U.); Monumental Mission (Smithsonian); Monuments Men Foundation for the Preservation of Art; Monuments Men: this commercial site supports Robert M. Edsel's The Mounments Men and Saving Italy (2013); Monuments Men: Tracking looted treasures (DW, 2013); World War II “Monuments Men” Archival Collections at the Archives of American Art (Smithsonian: Archives of American Art) for the exhibition (07 February-20 April 2014 exhibits; Treasure Hunters in Uniform: ‘Monuments Men’ Remembered (NY Times, February 2013); and National Archives Announces Discovery of "Hitler Albums" Documenting Looted Art (2007).

ART WORKS and BUILDINGS -- Study the items in red and at least one other art work or building for your Art/Map Profile:

 


II-IV: Holocaust

 

 

THEME: Casualties of the Second War to End All Wars, Part I: People, captured by the Holocaust experiences depicted in Elie Wiesel's Night (1933-45).

 

Night, 1

 

THE HOLOCAUST -- The Final Solution (The Holocaust, The Shoah) (The Map as History); The Holocaust, 1939-1945 (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations); Introduction to the Holocaust: text and animated map, World War II and the Holocaust (Animated Map), Concentration Camps, 1942–1945, and European rail system, 1939 (USHMM).  Optional: Genocide Under the Nazis (The Holocaust) (BBC); The Holocaust (McGraw-Hill); Memory of the Camps: Introduction, Map, and Full Program Online [53 minutes] (PBS); Mapping the SS Concentration Camp System over Space and Time (USHMM); Shtetl (PBS); The Holocaust (The Open University); and Deportation Railways and Hitler's "Final Solution": Jews Marked for Death (Norton iMaps).

SIGHET -- Elie Wiesel, Romania 1933 (with Sighet Marmatiei indicated), Ghettos in occupied Hungary, 1944, and Deportations from Hungarian ghettos to Auschwitz (USHMM); and Life in Sighet, Romania, 1920-1939 (PBS: Elie Wiesel: First Person Singular).  Optional: Night study and teachers' guides (Macmillan) and Oprah's Book Club.

 

Night, 2

 

AUSCHWITZ -- Auschwitz: text and animated map (USHMM) and Interactive Map (PBS: Auschwitz: Inside the Nazi State).  Optional: A Virtual Tour of Auschwitz/Birkenau (Remember.org: A Cybrary of the Holocaust); The Last Expression: Art and Auschwitz; Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum (USHMM); and God on Trial (2009) [88 minutes].

Night, 3

 

 

AUSCHWITZ -- Beethoven's Violin Concerto in D major op. 61, the last movement of the concerto likely referenced on Night, p. 95: listen while reading the articles below [11 minutes].  

 

DEATH MARCH -- Death Marches and Major death marches from Auschwitz (USHMM).

 

BUCHENWALD

MEMORIALS -- Speech delivered by Elie Wiesel in 1995, at the ceremony to mark the 50th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz (PBS: Elie Wiesel: First Person Singular) Optional: Holocaust Memorials (Facing History and Ourselves) (PBS). And study at least one building.

REFUGEES -- European Refugee Movements After World War Two (BBC) and Aftermath of the Holocaust and Bergen-Belsen Displaced Persons Camp: text and map (USHMM).

 

JUSTICE

 

 

V: Rights

THEME: The struggle to redefine humanity in terms of rights and the arts after World War II (1945-89).

 

COLD WAR -- The Western Tradition, 49: The Cold War and 50: Europe and the Third World Optional: The Cold War (Mapping History); Cold War in Europe: 1945-1990 (Wadsworth Modules); Division of Berlin, 1945 and Rivalry in Europe, 1949 (McDougal Littell); New Nations, 1946-1991 (McDougal Littell: Animated History); Communism: Development and Duration, 1917-2000 animated map; NATO and Warsaw Pact Countries (Norton iMaps); and One Giant Leap for Dogkind: Laika in space and art (Espionart).

Study the red art objects below and least two other items (artworks or buildings):

 

ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM -- The Art Story; and The Origins of Abstract Expressionism and The Impact of Abstract Expressionism (Smarthistory).   Optional: Abstract Expressionism and the New York School (Khan Academy) and Abstract Expressionism (ArtLex).

COLOR FIELD PAINTING -- The Art Story.

NEW YORK SCHOOL -- Neo-Dada (The Art Story).

SURREALISM

POP ART -- The Art Story Optional: Pop (Khan Academy).

EARTH ART -- Smithson, Spiral Jetty, 1970 (Smarthistory).  Optional: Minimalism and Earthworks (Khan Academy); Conceptual Art (The Art Story); and Learner: Art Through Time.

 

ASSEMBLAGE ART

SCULPTURE

ARCHITECTURE -- New York Architecture: International Style III and Postmodernism (Essential Architecture).

 

 

 

 

VI: Questions

 

THEME: From the Reformation to the Present, continuing questions about humanity's present and future (1989-present).

 

THE END OF THE WESTERN TRADITION -- The Western Tradition, 51: The Technological Revolution and 52: Toward the Future.

 

BERLIN (1989) -- Revolutions in Eastern Europe (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations) and 1989: The Walls Came Tumbling Down (The History Guide).  Optional: Rise and Fall of the Berlin Wall [3.30 minutes]; Hans Scharoun, Berlin Philharmonic (1956-63) (ArchDaily); and The Deadly Love of the GDR (Espionart).

USSR (1991) -- Breakup of the Soviet Union, 1991 (McGraw-Hill: In-Motion Animations). Optional: The Art of Russia, III: Smashing the Mould (BBC: Andrew Graham-Dixon) [60 minutes]. 

 

NYC (2001) -- 9/11 Attacks: 102 Minutes That Changed America and related media (History.com) and Leonard Slatkin conducts the BBC Orchestra in Barber's Adagio for Strings (1936) during "The Last Night of the Proms" in Albert Hall, London (15 September 2001) [10.30 minutes].  Optional: U2 Super Bowl 36 Halftime Performance (2002) [7 minutes] and Requiems (Alex Ross: The Rest is Noise, 2001).

 

Study Art, Architecture, and at least three works by at least two artists or architects:

 

ART -- Art in the 21st Century (Smarthistory).  Optional: From the Modern to the Postmodern and beyond: Art of the Later 20th Century (Online And study Guide for Gardner's Art through the Ages: The Western Perspective).  And study at least two artworks:

ARCHITECTURE -- The world's 25 greatest modern buildings (CNN, 2010) and 50 Strange Buildings of the World for fun (Essential Architecture).  Optional: Great modern buildings (The Guardian, 2007) and Early 21st century International / Minimalist Modernism and Interactive architecture (Essential Architecture).  And study at least two buildings:

 

 

 

Dr. C. McAllister, Catawba College, Salisbury, NC

 

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